[110] Users are able to provide new perspective and ideas, which can be considered in a new round of improvements and changes. Sustainable agriculture consists of environment friendly methods of farming that allow the production of crops or livestock without damage to human or natural systems. Sustainable development can be defined as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. (see below). Further complicating this analysis are the interrelationships of the various parts of the environment that might be impacted by the chosen course of action. Definition in English: ”Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while simultaneously sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services based upon which the economy and society depend.” Use of the term in Sentences: The economic development brought by such organized principles and practices in an economy is called Managed Sustainable Development (MSD). According to a series of reports by the Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership (LEDS GP), sustainable transport can help create jobs,[84] improve commuter safety through investment in bicycle lanes and pedestrian pathways,[85] make access to employment and social opportunities more affordable and efficient. The learning environment itself must adapt and apply a whole-institution approach to embed the philosophy of sustainable development. However, few nations met the World Wide Fund for Nature's definition of sustainable development criteria established in 2006. See more. [118][119], The Cuban-born researcher and entrepreneur Sonia Bueno suggests an alternative approach that is based upon the integral, long-term cost-benefit relationship as a measure and monitoring tool for the sustainability of every project, activity or enterprise. [73] Wind power has expanded quickly, its share of worldwide electricity usage at the end of 2014 was 3.1%. Schaltegger, S. & Sturm, A. [25], The launch of the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005–2014) started a global movement to reorient education to address the challenges of sustainable development. Sustainable development must be integrated into education and education must be integrated into sustainable development. [96][97] This in contrast to modernist and International Style architecture, as well as opposing to solitary housing estates and suburban sprawl, with long commuting distances and large ecological footprints. But they want to see a world of "win-wins" based on articles of faith, not fact. This page was last edited on 21 January 2021, at 11:32. [100], Recently, human-centered design and cultural collaboration have been popular frameworks for sustainable development in marginalized communities. This September, countries will gather at the UN to adopt 17 Global Goals for Sustainable Development. ecology. Inherently the concept of sustainable development is intertwined with the concept of carrying capacity. development will be “sustainable” on environmental, social, financial and other grounds. Page 3. Learn more. 1984. The concept of sustainable agriculture extends intergenerationally, passing on a conserved or improved natural resource, biotic, and economic base rather than one which has been depleted or polluted. [1] Modern economies are endeavouring to reconcile ambitious economic development and obligations of preserving natural resources and ecosystems, as the two are usually seen as of conflicting nature. The report included what is now one of the most widely recognised definitions of sustainable development.[20][21]. [93] Leading ecological economist and steady-state theorist Herman Daly,[5] for example, points to the fact that natural capital can not necessarily be substituted by economic capital. So what exactly is sustainable development? Taken together, the policy of perpetual economic growth for the entire planet remained virtually intact. Misum is a cross-disciplinary and multi-stakeholder knowledge centre dedicated to sustainability and sustainable markets and contains three research platforms: Sustainability in Financial Markets (Mistra Financial Systems), Sustainability in Production and Consumption and Sustainable Socio-Economic Development. Barbour, Elissa and Elizabeth A. Deakin. See Horizon 2020 – the EU's new research and innovation programme. Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. One common way to analyze possible outcomes of policy decisions on the scarce resource is to do a cost-benefit analysis. Cohen and Winn[124] point to four types of market failure as possible explanations: First, while the benefits of natural or social capital depletion can usually be privatised, the costs are often externalised (i.e. The shift toward effectiveness and equity in the corporate sustainability debate", "Catholic social teaching, sustainable development and social solidarism in the context of social security", "Beauty, Humanism, Continuity between Past and Future", Issue Brief: Smart-Growth: Building Livable Communities, "Sustainable development indicators: a scientific challenge, a democratic issue", http://citiesprogramme.com/archives/resource/circles-of-sustainability-urban-profile-process, "Culture: Fourth Pillar of Sustainable Development", "Assessing Cultural Sustainability: Agenda 21 for Culture", "Tribal Housing, Codesign, and Cultural Sovereignty", "Energy development and Native Americans: Values and beliefs about energy from the Navajo Nation", "Circular Product Design. Text taken from Rethinking Education: Towards a global common good?, 32–33, UNESCO. It assists its members and partners by providing loans, technical assistance, grants, and equity investments to promote social and economic development. Since the publication of the report, the ambiguous and insubstantial slogan of "sustainable development" has marched on worldwide.[7]:94–99. [113] Although some nations are more developed than others, all nations are constantly developing because each nation struggles with perpetuating disparities, inequalities and unequal access to fundamental rights and freedoms. What could I say? "I was reading Dictionary ! Sustainable development reduces poverty through financial (among other things, a balanced budget), environmental (living conditions), and social (including equality of income) means. Theoretically, the long-term result of environmental degradation is the inability to sustain human life. [106][107][108][109] Especially when working on sustainable development in marginalized communities, cultural emphasis is a crucial factor in project decisions, since it largely affects aspects of their lives and traditions. This is a resource to be protected. So, this topic is central to the understanding of creating a sustainable situation from the management of the public resources that are used for personal use. [101][102][103], Other organizations have also supported the idea of a fourth domain of sustainable development. [46] Economic development has traditionally required a growth in the gross domestic product. This article incorporates text from a free content work. But shifting the focus of sustainable development from conservation to development has had the imperceptible effect of stretching the original forest management term of sustainable yield from the use of renewable resources only (like forestry), to now also accounting for the use of non-renewable resources (like minerals). [18]:5 In 1992, the UN Conference on Environment and Development published the Earth Charter, which outlines the building of a just, sustainable, and peaceful global society in the 21st century. Boyd (2007). Sustainability Science is the study of the concepts of sustainable development and environmental science. [6]:48–54 In effect, the conservationists were crowded out and superseded by the developers. This allows for them to understand each other's thought process and their comprehension of the sustainable projects. [42] Elements of sustainable agriculture include permaculture, agroforestry, mixed farming, multiple cropping, and crop rotation. [18]:4 Two years later, the United Nations World Charter for Nature raised five principles of conservation by which human conduct affecting nature is to be guided and judged. Sustainable development may involve improvements in the quality of life for many but may necessitate a decrease in resource consumption. UNESDOC. Get latest updates on Sustainable Development. Sustainable development is the organizing principle for economic development while simultaneously sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services on which the economy and society depend. Other key global agreements such as the Paris Agreement (Article 12) also recognize the importance of ESD. It has been suggested that the term 'sustainability' should be viewed as humanity's target goal of human-ecosystem equilibrium, while 'sustainable development' refers to the holistic approach and temporal processes that lead us to the endpoint of sustainability". When the costs of polluting the commons are not calculated into the cost of the items consumed, then it becomes only natural to pollute, as the cost of pollution is external to the cost of the goods produced and the cost of cleaning the waste before it is discharged exceeds the cost of releasing the waste directly into the commons. [2]:13 This stretching of the term has been questioned. Sustainable development is a way for people to use resources without the resources running out. UN Decade for Education for Sustainable Development, Cultural elements in sustainable development frameworks, (PDF contains only the title and contents pages of the book), CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Ulrich Grober: Deep roots — A conceptual history of "sustainable development" (Nachhaltigkeit), Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung, 2007. [citation needed], Sustainable energy is clean and can be used over a long period. In fact natural capital, social capital and economic capital are often complementarities. This means CSR is a part of every department of the company value chain and not a part of HR / independent department. Atkinson, G., S. Dietz, and E. Neumayer (2009). [19] In 1987 the United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development released the report Our Common Future, commonly called the Brundtland Report. Some Western countries are making transportation more sustainable in both long-term and short-term implementations. [63] A study concluded in 2007 that knowledge, manufactured and human capital (health and education) has not compensated for the degradation of natural capital in many parts of the world. Huesemann (2011). (of economic development, energy sources, etc) capable of being maintained at a steady level without exhausting natural resources or causing severe … [60] Herman Daly, an economist for the Bank from 1988 to 1994, writes: When authors of WDR '92 [the highly influential 1992 World Development Report that featured the environment] were drafting the report, they called me asking for examples of "win-win" strategies in my work. Buy The Environmental Sustainable Development Goals in Bangladesh (Routledge Focus on Environment and Sustainability) 1 by Selim, Samiya A., Saha, Shantanu Kumar, Sultana, Rumana, Roberts, Carolyn (ISBN: 9781138615137) from Amazon's Book Store. The IPCC Fifth Assessment Report outlines current knowledge about scientific, technical and socio-economic information concerning climate change, and lists options for adaptation and mitigation. --Steven Wright, Sustainable Development বা টেকসই উন্নয়ন হলো মানব উন্নয়নের লক্ষ্যসমূহ অর্জনের সংগঠক নীতি একইসংঙ্গে প্রাকৃতিক ব্যবস্থাসমূহের প্রাকৃতিক সম্পদসমূহ এবং বাস্তুসংস্থান সেবাসমূহ প্রদানের ক্ষমতা বজায় রাখা যার উপর অর্থনীতি এবং সমাজ নির্ভরশীল।, যে উন্নয়ন ভবিষ্যৎ প্রজন্মসমূহের তাদের নিজেদের প্রয়োজনসমূহ মেটানোর ক্ষমতার সাথে আপস না করে বর্তমানের প্রয়োজনসমূহ মেটায় তাকে টেকসই উন্নয়ন বলা হয়।, ”Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while simultaneously sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services based upon which the economy and society depend.”. Sustainability definition, the ability to be sustained, supported, upheld, or confirmed. Consumption of natural and social capital may have no observable impact until a certain threshold is reached. Bakari, Mohamed El-Kamel. The Network of Excellence "Sustainable Development in a Diverse World",[104] sponsored by the European Union, integrates multidisciplinary capacities and interprets cultural diversity as a key element of a new strategy for sustainable development. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use. Privacy policy | Terms & Conditions | Contact, Definition of Sustainable Development in Bengali, ← Definition of an Entrepreneur in Bengali, Definition of Greenhouse Effect in Bengali →. [26], International recognition of ESD as the key enabler for sustainable development is growing steadily. Dictionary Thesaurus Examples Sentences Quotes Reference Spanish ... Sustainable-development meaning. Because, left unaddressed, the development of the commonly owned property will become impossible to achieve sustainably. The Committee meets annually to evaluate nominations proposed by States Parties to the 2003 Convention and decide whether or not to inscribe those cultural practices and expressions of intangible heritage on the Convention’s Lists. Research and innovation in Europe is financially supported by the programme Horizon 2020, which is also open to participation worldwide. Forests, for example, not only provide the raw material for paper (which can be substituted quite easily), but they also maintain biodiversity, regulate water flow, and absorb CO2. They postulate that firms often do not optimise resource allocation because they are caught in a "business as usual" mentality. The desired result is a state of society where living conditions and resources are used to continue to meet human needs … work accidents, mobbing of employees, human rights abuses). : desarrollo sustentable loc nom m locución … The partnership between Curtin University Sustainability Policy Institute (CUSPI) and the Government of Bangladesh represented by the Governance Innovation Unit (GIU) has been formalized by a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) signed in August 2015. ESD aims to produce learning outcomes that include core competencies such as critical and systematic thinking, collaborative decision-making, and taking responsibility for the present and future generations. It is said that one-third of all gases produced are due to transportation. Building the capacity of educators and policy support at international, regional, national and local levels helps drive changes in learning institutions. [11] His work influenced others, including Alexander von Humboldt and Georg Ludwig Hartig, eventually leading to the development of a science of forestry. corporate giving, creation of employment) or negative (e.g. Van der Straaten, J., and J.C van den Bergh (1994). This article incorporates text from a free content work. Today, ESD is arguably at the heart of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) (United Nations, 2015). ESD promotes the integration of these critical sustainability issues in local and global contexts into the curriculum to prepare learners to understand and respond to the changing world. A Multiple Loops Life Cycle Design Approach for the Circular Economy", "Joy E. Hecht, Can Indicators and Accounts Really Measure Sustainability? It has been argued that there is no such thing as a sustainable use of a non-renewable resource, since any positive rate of exploitation will eventually lead to the exhaustion of earth's finite stock;[2]:13 this perspective renders the Industrial Revolution as a whole unsustainable. This design incorporates some ecological, economic, and social elements. Although amount of structures for sustainability development is many, these qualification has become a standard for sustainable building. Instead of holding climate change commitments and other sustainability measures as a remedy to economic development, turning and leveraging them into market opportunities will do greater good. [35] Environmental sustainability requires society to design activities to meet human needs while preserving the life support systems of the planet. The desired result is a state of society where living conditions and resources are used to continue to meet human needs … [8] Another milestone was the 1968 article by Garrett Hardin that popularized the term "tragedy of the commons". [77] Both Schumacher and many modern-day proponents of appropriate technology also emphasise the technology as people-centered. Richard Stallman, the founder of the movement that created the GNU/Linux operating system, has explained in detail the ethical and legal underpinnings of these projects as Four Essential Freedoms of Free Software. Sustainability as in effects towards Human resources, Environment and Ecology has to be measured within each department of the company." sustainable definition: 1. able to continue over a period of time: 2. causing little or no damage to the environment and…. This model of unlimited personal and GDP growth may be over. Broadly defined, sustainable development is a systems approach to growth and development and to manage natural, produced, and social capital for the welfare of their own and future generations. [78] Today appropriate technology is often developed using open source principles, which have led to open-source appropriate technology (OSAT) and thus many of the plans of the technology can be freely found on the Internet. Sustainable Development. The Circles of Sustainability approach distinguishes the four domains of economic, ecological, political and cultural sustainability. Sustainable development: development which considers the long term perspectives of the socioeconomic system, to ensure that improveme- nts occurring in the short term will not be detrimental to the future status or development potential of the system, i.e. 1972. Fundamental human needs such as the availability and quality of air, water, food and shelter are also the ecological foundations for sustainable development;[33] addressing public health risk through investments in ecosystem services can be a powerful and transformative force for sustainable development which, in this sense, extends to all species. These factors ensure that researchers are conscious of community values that align with positive environmental, social, and economic impacts. There are 17 Goals that cover five key themes. Since natural resources are derived from the environment, the state of air, water, and the climate is of particular concern. They have listed seven subdomains of the domain of politics:[100]. At the same time, education must be strengthened in all agendas, programmes, and activities that promote sustainable development. The Bengali people speak dialects of Bangla—as they call the Bengali language—which belongs to the Indo-Aryan group of the Meadows, D.H., D.L. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. Atom.archives.unesco.org. Second, natural capital is often undervalued by society since we are not fully aware of the real cost of the depletion of natural capital. J.J. Seneca/M.K. Zürich: vdf. Back to hunting and gathering", Building Our Sustainable Cities " onsustainability.com, Profitability of multi-national corporations in the context of sustainable development: Scania business practices, Seven Pillars of Survivability: Appropriate Technology with a Human Face, American Council of Engineering Companies, "Circles of Sustainability – Practical tools for creating sustainable cities and communities", Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform, "Sustainable Development Solutions Network", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sustainable_development&oldid=1001799046, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The concept of 'needs', in particular, the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and. For example, with globalisation advancing quickly the number of indigenous languages is dropping at alarming rates. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use. It means doing development without damaging or … [116], The most common critiques are related to issues like data quality, comparability, objective function and the necessary resources. ‘Equitable and sustainable development presumes that the natural resources will be used.’ ‘And we've got to deal with the environment, get a sustainable development running in this country.’ ‘It is time to envision and design the plane of sustainable agriculture and dream of it really flying!’ It is this licensing model that has enabled the global wiki movement, not the licensing model of Open Source, which by itself is inadequate to prevent proprietary vendors from redistributing unfree versions of designs and software that they obtained gratis. "[115] Nevertheless, a majority of authors assume that a set of well defined and harmonised indicators is the only way to make sustainability tangible. [94], CASI Global, New York "CSR & Sustainability together lead to sustainable development. Borowy, Iris. "[10] That year also saw the publication of the influential A Blueprint for Survival book. [62] A study in 2004 asked if we consume too much. Sustainability goals, such as the current UN-level Sustainable Development Goals, address the global challenges, including poverty, inequality, climate change, environmental degradation, peace and justice. )[citation needed]. [90], The most broadly accepted criterion for corporate sustainability constitutes a firm's efficient use of natural capital. Eco-Efficiency by Eco-Controlling. "[2]:13, In effect, it has been argued that the industrial revolution as a whole is unsustainable. The concept of sustainable development was described by the 1987 Bruntland Commission Report as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” The emphasis of the report was on helping poor nations out of poverty and meeting the basic needs of their growing populations—as usual. Building upon the ideas of Evelyn and French minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert, von Carlowitz developed the concept of managing forests for sustained yield. Retrieved 2014-01-17. International Union for the Conservation of Nature, World Commission on Environment and Development, UN Conference on Environment and Development, European environmental research and innovation policy, sustainability standards and certification, Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership (LEDS GP), International Institute for Sustainable Development, Learn how and when to remove this template message, United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Balsillie School of International Affairs, personal reflection, personal essay, or argumentative essay, License statement/permission on Wikimedia Commons, "Growth: A Discussion of the Margins of Economic and Ecological Thought", "The Ecologist January 1972: a blueprint for survival", "Growth and its implications for the future", "Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development", "Learning for Sustainability: Sustainable Development. Sustainable development is a general belief that all human endeavors should promote the longevity of the planet and its inhabitants. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015, provides a shared blueprint for peace and prosperity for people and the planet, now and into the future.At its heart are the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which are an urgent call for action by all countries - developed and developing - in a global partnership. Thus, environmental economist Kerry Turner has argued that literally, there can be no such thing as overall "sustainable development" in an industrialised world economy that remains heavily dependent on the extraction of earth's finite stock of exhaustible mineral resources: "It makes no sense to talk about the sustainable use of a non-renewable resource (even with substantial recycling effort and reduction in use rates). [36], An unsustainable situation occurs when natural capital (the total of nature's resources) is used up faster than it can be replenished. However, as Dyllick and Hockerts[93] point out the business case alone will not be sufficient to realise sustainable development. [110] A key element of human centered design is applied ethnography, which was a research method adopted from cultural anthropology. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), also known as the Global Goals, were adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015 as a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity by 2030. [31], The ecological stability of human settlements is part of the relationship between humans and their natural, social and built environments. Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while simultaneously sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services on which the economy and society depend. M.M. As renewable energy becomes more common, fossil fuel infrastructures are replaced by renewables and we may begin to see a Renewable energy transition, providing better social equity to these communities. The bedrock of sustainable development is composed of freedom and democracy -- a system of governance which gives freedom to a community or a nation, within an universally accepted social framework that prescribes penalties for harming another community or nation, to control the use and management of its natural resources so that it can determine its own way of economic and social development. [9] Sustainable development ties together concern for the carrying capacity of natural systems with the social, political, and economic challenges faced by humanity. [87] An example is the modification in available transportation in Freiburg, Germany. (2013). [43] It involves agricultural methods that do not undermine the environment, smart farming technologies that enhance a quality environment for humans to thrive and reclaiming and transforming deserts into farmlands(Herman Daly, 2017). "Urban Transportation and Social Equity: Transportation Planning Paradigms that Impede Policy Reform," in Naomi Carmon and Susan S. Fainstein, eds. [123], If the degradation of natural and social capital has such important consequence the question arises why action is not taken more systematically to alleviate it. This accords with the Brundtland Commission emphasis on development that is guided by human rights principles (see above). [28] It has also been worded as "economic, environmental and social" or "ecology, economy and equity". [49] Scientists in many fields have highlighted The Limits to Growth,[50][51] and economists have presented alternatives, for example a 'steady-state economy', to address concerns over the impacts of expanding human development on the planet. Eco-efficiency: The business link to sustainable development. [98] Both trends started in the 1980s. [79] OSAT has been proposed as a new model of enabling innovation for sustainable development. More often, they simply draw our attention to the existence of problems, doing little to tell us the origin of those problems and nothing to tell us how to solve them. [99] The International Institute for Sustainable Development has similarly developed a political policy framework, linked to a sustainability index for establishing measurable entities and metrics. [68], The total environment includes not just the biosphere of earth, air, and water, but also human interactions with these things, with nature, and what humans have created as their surroundings. Sustainable development covers three different fronts: economic, social and environmental. [71][72] Solar energy is commonly used on public parking meters, street lights and the roof of buildings. Bringing human health and wellbeing back into sustainable development. These can be either positive (e.g. [citation needed], Another problem of natural and social capital deterioration lies in their partial irreversibility. Urbanization (or urbanisation) refers to the population shift from rural to urban areas , the decrease in the proportion of people living in rural areas , and the ways in which societies adapt to this change. CASI Global, At the present time, sustainable development can reduce poverty. [39][40], Pollution of the public resources is not a different action, it is just a reverse tragedy of the commons, in that instead of taking something out, something is put into the commons. The SDGs were set in 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly and are intended to be achieved by the year 2030. Sustainable development is defined as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” The concept of needs goes beyond simply material needs and includes values, relationships, freedom to think, act, … Growth for the entire planet remained virtually intact K.S., Reyf, Igor E. Huesemann,,. ( 1994 ) benefit from win-win situations this can produce a social equity,... Life support systems of the report included what is now one of the planet conservation and sustainable development: Twins... Sustainable material supplies ( e.g contributors to health problems in the communities concerned... 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Resource allocation because they are borne not by the chosen course of action: 2. a who. Under CC BY-SA License statement/permission on Wikimedia Commons organizations have also supported the idea of limitations by! This definition is in accord with the realization that contrary to economic Theory many firms are not sustainable of or... The link between cause and effect is obscured, making it difficult for actors to make informed choices on... Chosen course of action of structures for sustainability development is the inability to sustain human life key global such! Thought process and their comprehension of the present without compromising the ability future. Trade-Offs, not `` win-win. conservation and sustainable material supplies ( e.g focus! The year 2030 32 ] also termed human ecology, economy and equity.., with globalisation advancing quickly the number of vehicle trips to lower greenhouse gases emitters in the of! One-Third of all gases produced are due to transportation the key enabler sustainable! Solar energy is commonly used on public parking meters, street lights and necessary... That technology can be thought of in terms of use subdomains of the a... Business as usual '' mentality, conservation and sustainable material supplies ( e.g Both long-term and short-term implementations above... Some of these SDGs include ensuring affordable and clean energy, and crop rotation terms of spheres! To do a cost-benefit analysis 7 dimensions, 35 indicators, and social capital deterioration lies in their partial.! Prerequisite for achieving sustainable development ( Brundtland Commission emphasis on development that meets the needs their. I., Losev, K.S., Reyf, Igor E. Huesemann, M.H., W.W.., regional, national and local communities interacting with education institutions become key in! Are 17 Goals that cover five key themes change can be used over a period! Empowered youth and local levels helps drive changes in learning institutions the time... In corporate social responsibility is not what you do with your profits, is... Environment friendly methods of farming that allow the production of crops or livestock without damage to human or systems. Sdgs were set in 2015 by the economist Rene Passet in 1979 observable impact until certain. Call `` the built environment '' should not harm the Earth or deplete resources. All agendas, programmes, and W.W. Behrens III development covers three different fronts: economic, and sustainable supplies! Or plan of action with positive environmental, social, financial and other grounds damage to or... Sustainability approach distinguishes the four domains of economic, social capital may have consequences... Also in the 1980s importance of ESD as the key enabler for sustainable development may involve improvements in the direction.
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