“This particular project is exemplary in furthering that dialogue and bringing it to people’s attention.”, “Climate change is a risk management problem. Get Knowledge@Wharton delivered to your inbox every week. First and foremost, that means ending price-distorting government subsidies, such as those benefiting the US livestock industry. Photo courtesy of Candle Cafe. Solutions in progress: In October 2016, officials from more than 170 countries gathered in Kigali, Rwanda, to negotiate a deal to address the problem of HFCs. Climate Change 101 with Bill Nye Climate Change is a real and serious issue. 1 It will soon be much more. That intermingling takes a variety of forms. For individuals to give up meat in favor of options lower on the food chain, those options should be available, visible, and tempting. Cultural barriers encompass traditional beliefs that girls should tend the home rather than learn to read and write, should be married off at a young age, and, when resources are slim, should be skipped over so boys can be sent to school instead. Initiatives need to respect land rights and tenure, especially those of Indigenous people. Photo by Bo Jansson (Alamy). Though not focused on safety, these markers often confuse consumers about expiration. Disability, pregnancy, childbirth, and female genital mutilation also can be obstacles. It … Web. Currently, we’re working with magazine publishers to switch them from virgin-pulp paper to paper with at least Of the three big baskets of risks, the work of the Penn project is most significant in relation to minimizing risks in the transition phase to a carbon-free economy, according to Kimbrough. Potential Solutions. New technologies are helping to fight global warming Image: Roxanne Desgagnes 09 Jan 2017. Solar PV has benefited from a virtuous cycle of falling costs, driven by incentives to accelerate its development and implementation, economies of scale in manufacturing, advances in panel technology, and innovative approaches for end-user financing. As a result, fertility rates halved in just one decade. One is to drive collaborations between schools and scholars within the university to find climate solutions. Literature Cited. After being carefully removed and stored, refrigerants can be purified for reuse or transformed into other chemicals that do not cause warming. They also reward innovators who develop cleaner technologies. Grants, loans, and tax incentives can encourage construction of more wind capacity and ongoing innovation. Photo by Heidi Randhava. Climate change solutions need to identify and exploit synergy, as well as seek to balance trade-offs, among the multiple objectives of sustainable development, disaster risk reduction and adaptation policies. Increased morbidity and health care costs go hand in hand. “Much of climate change is often sold as painful and difficult, and very unpleasant,” said Kimbrough. Intact tropical and northern forests, as well as savannas and coastal ecosystems, store huge amounts of carbon accumulated over centuries. Solutions in progress: Solar photovoltaics (PV) have seen exponential growth over the past decade. The Penn project brings to bear cross-functional skills from across the university, noted Coglianese. Many nations have put laws into place to fight climate change -- here’s what you can do. The Wharton School is committed to sharing its intellectual capital through the school’s online business journal, Knowledge@Wharton. He noted that these views reflect those of the wider Penn faculty, whom he represents this year as the Faculty Senate chair. Refrigerants continue to cause planetary trouble, however. GHG reduction (Drawdown Scenario—assumes higher growth): 64.6 GT of reduced CO2 by 2050. It details a “fast track” scenario, based on South Korea’s actual climb from one of the least to one of the most educated countries in the world. From the Latin for “forest” and “grazing,” silvopasture is just that: the integration of trees and pasture or forage into a single system for raising livestock, from cattle and sheep to deer and ducks. Tropical forest loss alone is responsible for 16 to 19 percent of greenhouse-gas emissions caused by human activity. With that in mind, two Cornell soil scientists have helped develop a powerful new tool that will help researchers and policymakers map the global potential for carbon sequestration. 7 Solutions to Climate Change Happening Now Even as the world continues to spew more carbon pollution, change has begun—and is accelerating By David Biello on November 17, 2014 The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predicted sea levels will rise between one and two feet by 2100. The solutions are ranked by the amount of greenhouse gases they reduce by 2050. Animals may graze in grassy alleys between rows of arboreal growth. Tackling climate change calls for action on dozens, if not hundreds or thousands, of fronts, from developing new government policies, to planting trees and educating consumers. Most important is to preempt food waste before it happens, for greatest reduction of upstream emissions, followed by reallocation of unwanted food. Because the integration of trees into grazing lands enhances soil fertility and moisture, farmers find themselves with healthier, more productive land over time. How carbon-smart farming can feed us and fight climate change at the same time ... it is more important than ever to unlock large-scale carbon finance for natural climate solutions through carbon market mechanisms. Given the interconnectedness of people and forests, a particular framework for restoration has emerged: forest landscape restoration. In 2002, our Solar Catalyst project mapped out the future of solar power in the US. GHG reduction (Drawdown Scenario—requires greater wind-energy increase): 146.5 GT of reduced CO2 by 2050. top 100 climate-change solutions. Each solution goes through a strict assessment process performed by independent experts. That number is startling, especially when paired with this one: Hunger is a condition of life for nearly 800 million people worldwide. The approach, proposed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, means “regarding the landscape as an integrated whole ... looking at different land uses together, their connections, interactions, and a mosaic of [restoration] interventions.”. Family planning requires social reinforcement—for example, the radio and television soap operas now used in many places to shift perceptions of what is “normal” or “right.”. Public investment, tax incentives, technology evolution, and brute manufacturing force have chipped away at the cost of creating PV, bringing it down to 65 cents per watt today. These landscapes have the potential to capture and store vast amounts of carbon – thus helping reduce the harmful impacts of climate change. A recent major renovation is sending yet another important message to the world: renewable energy and climate change. Project Drawdown analysis includes emissions reductions that can be achieved through the management and destruction of refrigerants already in circulation. That said, bringing about dietary change is not simple because eating is profoundly personal and cultural. We also developed the idea for Clean Energy Victory Bonds, which would allow individuals to invest in green energy for as little as $25, through a government Treasury bond. GHG reduction (Drawdown Scenario—requires higher rate of adoption): 47.5 GT of reduced CO2-e by 2050.. While the production of PV panels, like any manufacturing process, involves emissions, they generate electricity without emitting greenhouse gases or air pollution. Huge volumes of CFCs and HCFCs remain in circulation, retaining their potential for ozone damage. Cocoa Barometer 2020: No Meaningful Progress Made in 20 Years of Business Model That Ensures Poverty For Farmers, Trump Labor Department’s rule discouraging ESG investing in retirement plans is, Success! Critics argue that turbines are noisy, aesthetically unpleasant, and at times deadly to bats and migrating birds. Discover how the latest innovations and technology are posing potential solutions … It’s about ensuring energy security, expanding access to reliable and affordable energy, and spurring economic growth that creates jobs and protects the planet. A vegan dessert from Candle Cafe, a vegan, local, and organic restaurant in New York City that also offers frozen vegan meals and vegan cookbooks. “It may well be true, but it’s incumbent upon us to be extremely creative and open-minded, and figure out new ways of doing things to make the transition as painless as possible.”. Re(Store) It! The Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change (2006) estimated the total cost of climate change to be equivalent to a one-off, permanent 5-20% loss in global average (mean) per-person spending in today’s money. OCI Solar Power’s 60-acre Alamo 3 solar farm in Converse, TX, generates 5.5 megawatts (AC) of power for nearly 1,240 homes. For starters, educated girls realize higher wages and greater upward mobility, contributing to economic growth. Insights from literature, philosophy and other humanities can produce better solutions. The problem: Fossil fuels sidelined zero-emission wind energy during the mid-twentieth century. The company is well known throughout China by way of its[…]. The project is ongoing, and plans are to publish more proposals as participants identify newer solutions to combat climate change. New research, led by The Nature Conservancy and 15 other institutions*, and published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, demonstrates that nature-based solutions can provide up to 37 percent of the emission reductions needed by 2030 to keep global temperature increases under 2°C—30 percent more than previously estimated.. National goals and policies can encourage widespread change, as well. It’s just distributed randomly and insensibly and tragically.” He added that those costs are borne by not just the current generation. Currently, family-planning programs receive just one percent of all overseas development assistance. This solar panel replaced  kerosene and provided electricity to the family for the first time. Climate Solutions at USDA USDA is taking steps to create modern solutions to the challenge of climate change. The decline in price has always outpaced predictions, and drops will continue. From sea level rise to heat waves, from extreme weather to disease outbreaks, each unique challenge requires locally-suitable solutions to prepare for and respond to the impacts of global warming. Cost & savings (Plausible Scenario): Inappropriate to monetize a human right. In a median time of 66 years, tropical forests can recover 90 percent of the biomass that old-growth landscapes contain. “The tax, though, is the costs of the floods and the fires. “There are people who have problems and there are people who have expertise to solve those problems. Chapter V highlights the adaptation needs and responses of developing countries to climate change and how the work of … Cost (Plausible Scenario): –$80.6 billion. Up to 1.2 billion acres are ripe for full restoration of large forests with dense canopy cover. According to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 700 million air conditioning units will have come online worldwide by 2030. If Ukrainian officials have their way, Chernobyl, the site of a mass nuclear meltdown in 1986, will house a 1-gigawatt solar farm, which would be one of the world’s largest. Global warming is the cause of climate change. Similarly, consumers spurn imperfect spuds in the produce section, overestimate how many meals they will cook in a week, toss out milk that has not gone bad, or forget about leftover lasagna in the back of the fridge. ... why we need to act promptly to mitigate its effects, and how each of us can contribute to a solution. Project Drawdown assumes it will grow to ten percent. Their rates of maternal mortality drop, as do mortality rates of their babies. The problem: Every refrigerator, supermarket case, and air conditioner contains chemical refrigerants that absorb and release heat, making it possible to chill food and keep buildings and vehicles cool. When they see that, they’ll change their values as well.”–Steven Kimbrough. “The images of the devastation of [Hurricane] Katrina spoke louder than words,” Austin wrote in her paper, citing research on Katrina and the government’s flawed response. Their agricultural plots are more productive and their families better nourished. In Bangladesh, average birth rates fell from six children in the 1980s to two now, as the door-to-door approach pioneered in the Matlab hospital spread across the country: female health workers providing basic care for women and children where they live. Kousky added airplanes to that list, noting that they are big emitters of greenhouse gases. Experts explain why they are taking a stand. Work to be done: The interventions that can address key waste points in the food chain are numerous and varied. The over-arching goal of this paper is to explore how industrial biotechnology can be used as part of the toolkit in the struggle to control climate change. Such initiatives also require new and sustained funding sources. Carbon reduction (Plausible Scenario): 24.6 GT of reduced CO2 by 2050. These systems are more expensive to establish, requiring higher up-front costs in addition to the necessary technical expertise. Kousky identified to-do plans for “three audiences” for the Penn report. Global warming solutions The Solar Impulse Label is granted to innovative solutions to global warming that meet high standards of sustainability and profitability. Three-quarters of that land would be best suited to a “mosaic” forest-restoration approach, blending forests, trees, and agricultural land uses. Interconnected grids can shuttle power to where it is needed. Here's how. Refrigerants currently cause emissions throughout their life cycles, but 90 percent of emissions happen at disposal. The problem: A third of the food raised or prepared does not make it from farm or factory to fork. Pastures that are strewn or crisscrossed with trees sequester five to ten times as much carbon as those of the same size that are treeless. Climate Change Could sustainable fuel derived from cooking oil help aviation navigate to a cleaner future? The bulk of restoration opportunities lies primarily within low-income countries in tropical regions. From one-tenth of a ton of carbon dioxide per person in Madagascar to 1.8 tons in India, per-capita emissions in lower-income countries are a fraction of the US rate of 18 tons per person per year. Potential Solutions. “What has to be done is convince people that it’s too expensive not to move forward. Retailers reject food based on bumps, bruises, coloring—aesthetic objections of all sorts. Mitigation: How do we reduce emissions rapidly to minimize the risks of catastrophic shifts in earth systems? One recent study calculated that if Brazil reached zero deforestation by 2030, it would add 0.6% of GDP, or about $15 billion, to its economy. As forest ecosystems come back to life, trees, soil, leaf litter, and other vegetation absorb and hold carbon, taking it out of global-warming rotation. Now, she attends school through GoodWeave’s education program. And this one: The food we waste contributes 4.4 gigatons of CO2-equivalent into the atmosphere each year—roughly eight percent of total anthropogenic greenhouse-gas emissions. 1612 K Street NW, Suite 600, Washington DC 20006, Phone: (800) 584-7336      Fax: (202) 331-8166, Green America's website is sponsored by Green America members and. You can also get tips on reducing your need for air conditioning and saving energy at home in our article,“Ten Easiest Ways to Cut Your Energy Use in Half.”. What is often missing is political will and leadership. A two-foot rise would flood tens of millions of people living in low-lying areas. 2) Help girls overcome health barriers. some recycled content—particularly Smithsonian Magazine and college and university alumni magazines. GHG reduction (Plausible Scenario): 36.9 GT of reduced CO2 by 2050. Work to be done: Though the advantages of silvopasture are clear, its growth has been limited by both practical and cultural factors. Debunking protein myths and amplifying the health benefits of plant-rich diets can also encourage individuals to change their eating patterns. The third is to work closely with the private sector in tackling climate change. It also certifies carpets and looms as being free from child labor. Unabated climate change could one day look like bikinis outpacing parkas at booming tiki bars surrounding the world’s former glaciers. In the most comprehensive report on effective climate solutions, Project Drawdown named educating girls as the #6 most impactful solution (for reference, composting is #60, and rooftop solar is #10). “Part of why it’s tricky is it’s actually not just one risk management problem, but hundreds of risk management problems.” The Risk Center classified those risks under the following “three big buckets” that called for appropriate climate policies: The Risk Center reached out to scholars across Penn to propose solutions in any of those buckets, and the 30 proposals are the outcome of that effort. He pointed to a proposal by Penn Law professor Howard F. Chang that explores how tariffs and international trade policy might be leveraged to help address climate change. Most Popular. Solar photovoltaics are only two percent of the global electricity mix at present. and Carbon Farming programs are accelerating the shift to regenerative agriculture, including silvopasture practices. Among the most important natural climate solutions is protecting “frontier forests”—pristine woodlands that serve as natural carbon sinks. The problem: Today, more than 130 million girls are denied the fundamental right to attend school and lay a foundation for their lives. We know that climate change is happening – but there are plenty of things individuals can do to help mitigate it. Project Drawdown’s Plausible Scenario assumes restoration could occur on 435 million acres, resulting in: GHG reduction (Plausible Scenario): 61.2 GT of reduced CO2 by 2050. We thought it would be fun to see where Green America’s climate-related campaigns stack up on the Project Drawdown The historically large Camp Fire of 2018 caused at least ninety deaths, destroyed more than 18,000 structures, and covered an area roughly the same size as the Chicago metropolitan area. Cattle and other ruminants require 30 to 45 percent of the world’s arable land, and livestock produce roughly one-fifth of greenhouse gas emissions. GoodWeave rescues child weavers from carpet looms in Cost (Plausible Scenario): $1.2 trillion, though costs are falling annually and could deliver more savings. The fundamental need is for a “normative change” where society as a whole makes it abundantly clear that climate change is unacceptable, according to Coglianese. The cost of each extra ton of carbon emitted today was estimated to be around $312. Using the scenario that gets us to drawdown—which requires ramping up the solutions a bit more than the conservative measure, particularly renewable energy—they reduce or sequester carbon by 1,442 gigatons by 2050. Outside of innovative, carbon-sequestering managed-grazing practices described in another section of Drawdown, the production of meat and dairy contributes many more emissions than growing their sprouted counterparts—vegetables, fruits, grains, and legumes. The International Renewable Energy Agency already credits 220 million to 330 million tons of annual CO2 savings to solar PV. Green America resources: Green America’s Divest/Invest campaign encourages people to divest from the top 200 fossil-fuel companies and reinvest in sustainability. Green America resources: Join with your neighbors to drive down the costs of rooftop solar. It threatens to exacerbate poverty and hurt economic growth. Savings (Plausible Scenario): $5.02 trillion in net savings. Trees create cooler microclimates and more protective environments, and can moderate water availability. When water warms up it expands. Utility-scale solar is currently 0.4 percent of global electricity generation. Nevertheless, changes in fertility rates in those countries would have multiple benefits for girls and women, families, communities, and society. GHG reduction (Drawdown Scenario—requires more restoration): 89 GT of reduced CO2 by 2050.. Savings (Plausible Scenario): Data too variable to be determined. Recurrent changes in the earth's orbit can occur in regular, very large intervals of several tens of thousands of years, and high correlations with the climatic changes on earth have been documented here. Causes. Here’s how our efforts came out: Climate Action: Growing Renewables: A big part of our Climate Action program aims to grow renewable energy generation in the US. But the data had some surprises in store. women (#62), composting (#60), saving water (#46), buying an electric car (#26), eating less meat (#4), reducing food waste (#3), and more. Changes in climate and extreme weather events have already begun to affect people and nature across the globe. GHG reduction (Plausible Scenario): 59.6 GT of reduced CO2 by 2050. For all of that, we need innovation. And because restoration efforts have ranged from success to failure, we need to analyze why, scale best practices, and eliminate those that do not work. All materials copyright of the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. Sign up for the weekly Knowledge@Wharton e-mail newsletter, offering business leaders cutting-edge research and ideas from Wharton faculty and other experts. Because educating girls has an important impact on family planning (#7), Project Drawdown allocated 50 percent of total potential emissions reduction to each solution. Ranking: Rooftop solar: #10, with 24.6 gigatons (GT) CO2-equivalent (CO2-e) reduced. Climate change includes both the global warming driven by human emissions of greenhouse gases, and the resulting large-scale shifts in weather patterns.Though there have been previous periods of climatic change, since the mid-20th century, humans have had unprecedented impact on Earth's climate system and caused change on a global scale. Solutions in progress: Restoration of tropical forests, both passive and intentional, is now a growing trend. In Bangladesh alone, 3.6 million home solar systems have generated 115,000 direct jobs and 50,000 more downstream. The need persists in some high-income countries as well, including the US, where 45 percent of pregnancies are unintended. (Solar farms are cheaper to install than fossil-fuel alternatives, so there’s actually a (Listen to the podcast on at the top of this page.). Informed predictions about the cost and growth of solar PV indicate that it will soon become the least expensive energy in the world. Cost (Plausible Scenario): $453.1 billion net cost. The activity and thus the radiation of the sun arriving on earth also vary. Currently, “sell by” or “best before” dates and the like are largely unregulated designations, indicating when food should taste best. Wildfires are dangerous and destructive. The International Monetary Fund estimates that the fossil-fuel industry received more than $5.3 trillion worldwide in direct and indirect subsidies in 2015. The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, 16 September, 2019. emissions reduction to each solution. In lower-income countries, improving infrastructure for storage, processing, and transportation is essential. (Photo: Unsplash/Viktor Forgacs) By Zhaki Abdullah. The connections between COVID-19 and climate change are real. Green America resources: Green America’s Labor and Clean Electronics programs support solutions that help women earn their own incomes and determine their own futures. Trees may be clustered, evenly spaced, or used as living fencing. If the world reduces its food waste by 2050, it would see the following: GHG reduction (Plausible Scenario): 70.53 GT of reduced CO2-e by 2050. This “net metering” arrangement can make solar panels financially feasible for homeowners, offsetting the electricity consumers buy at night, when the sun is not shining. While its role is not to set climate policy or prescribe particular responses or solutions to climate change, its purview does include providing the robust scientific data needed to understand climate change and evaluating the impact of efforts to combat it. Coglianese said he expected climate-change effects to compel some U.S. communities to relocate, and pointed to regular flooding in Miami and other parts of coastal areas as examples. Thanks to the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, CFCs and HCFCs have been phased out of use. It is not NASA’s role to set climate policy or prescribe particular responses or solutions to climate change. (See #6 for statistics on per capita emissions.) Now, three decades later, the ozone layer is beginning to heal. Polar bears would join the dinosaurs—all warm, fuzzy and dearly departed. Savings (Plausible Scenario): $3.46 trillion net savings. Work to be done: Honoring the dignity of women and children through family planning is not about centralized governments forcing the birth rate down—or up through natalist policies. The Knowledge@Wharton radio show on SiriusXM discussed some of the climate change solutions and major takeaways from the Penn report with Cary Coglianese, Penn law professor and political science professor and director of the Penn Program on Regulation; Steven O. Kimbrough, Wharton professor of operations, information and decisions, and Carolyn Kousky, executive director at the Wharton Risk Management and Decision Processes Center. Cost (Plausible Scenario): Data too variable to be determined. Why Central Banks Are Taking on Climate Change, Wanda: Strategic Transition to an Asset-light Model. Impacts from climate change are happening now. In addition, our “Climate Justice for All” issue of the Green American highlights leaders around the world who are working to reduce climate-change impacts to communities of color, who are often hardest hit by them. “Industries and individuals with a stake in the status quo can be expected to resist the necessary changes,” he said. 3) Reduce the time and distance to get to school. Sean Fleming 19 Jan 2021. Mitigation – reducing climate change – involves reducing the flow of heat-trapping greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, either by reducing sources of these gases (for example, the burning of fossil fuels for electricity, heat or transport) or enhancing the “sinks” that accumulate and store these gases (such as the oceans, forests and soil). 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