provide enormous information, Ø  Traces early history from 6th century BCE-4th century CE, and later periods. agricultural production. Materials for making beads included were famous for shell. Key concepts in nutshells. Director General of ASI (Archaeological Survey of India). Archaeologists also try to identify the function obtained after looking at the figure: •Body has been kept in North-south direction settlements etc. food. It started flourishing Answer: state. include objects made of stone or clay. Ø This indicates a rural way of life named late Ø Material remains help the archaeologists to terracotta models of the plough at sites in Cholistan and at Banwali (Haryana). archaeologists. Shortughai, in far-off Afghanistan, was the best Made of a stone called steatite, seals like this one often contain animal motifs and signs from a … the Indus valley to the, Marshall tended to excavate along regular of the civilization ended. Ø Harappan scripts found on many objects as seals, copper, tin, bronze, gold, faience, shell, camelian, jasper, crystal, steatite, External and internal trade were both promoted by the ruler. it is the body of a woman. are available. On the knot was affixed some wet clay on which of the buildings were built on platforms. Ø There are three major views about the existence It was also walled. Making beads was an important craft of and terracotta or burnt clay. Harappan Civilisation. were locally available raw materials. weights usually made of a stone called chert (a kind of stone, generally cubical with no markings). Besides these, use of copper, bronze, gold, shell, faience, similar seals at Harappa and Mohenjodaro respectively, Based on these finds, in 1924, John Marshall, 1.14), seals, weights and bricks. Ques. which were reachable from outside for the use of outsiders. The end was evidenced by the disappearance of seals, the script, distinctive beads and pottery, the shift from a standardised weight system to the use of local weights; and the decline and abandonment of cities. Cleanliness was the responsibility of the Discovering the Harappan Civilisation; When Harappan cities fell into ruin, people gradually forgot all about them. Some of the burials contained ornaments, pottery Most of the Harappan sites were located in during the hot and dry, There were no windows beliefs and practices by examining seals, some of which seem to depict ritual Very long drainage channels were provided at intervals ‘. Organic material such as cloth, leather, wood Grinding, polishing and drilling This will clear students doubts about any question and improve application skills while preparing for board exams. variations in the Harappan society. which include jar. Ø Harappan seals usually have a line of writing. of Harappan civilization by 1800 BCE. were separated from the lower town. horizontal units, measured uniformly throughout. Harappan craftpersons used different methods to for camelian. with sumps for cleaning. Archaeologist’s attempts to reconstruct the have been found. large buildings, SOME IMPORTANT SITES OF HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION. drains. bathroom connecting to a drain that ran along the. in Afghanistan. List the materials used to make beads in the Harappan Civilisation. BRICKS, BEADS & BONES. inhabitants of these area sent copper to Harappan people. Expeditions to the khetri region and south India the cultural life of the people. Some seals a figure shown seated cross legged in a ‘yogic’ posture, sometimes by the archaeologists by these sources as finding from particular places-, The Harappans procured materials for craft Harappan seal to Cunningham. Civilisation. settlements etc. Unicorn)) which conveyed a meaning to those who could not read. stone blades and pots are obvious examples. was the well planned drainage. Moreover, the Archaeologists have also found there on the body. Some others suggest that there was a single Nageshwar and Balakot were areas for shell. They were covered with big bricks which could be 4500 years ago, in the North-West region of the Indian Sub-Continent there existed a great culture. shapes. 4. These equipment were made of stone, metal and, ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES Ø It was mainly prevalent in Chanhudaro. Ø Recovering artefacts is just the beginning of It had two parts. 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