[55], The South Ballcourt, like the North Ball court, has only vertical walls which are sculpted. El Tajin was founded following the abandonment of the city of Teotihuacan. Visit El Tajin: History El Tajin is your one stop shop for everything that Mesoamerican Veracruz has to offer… excellent ruins, voladores & the Pueblo Magico base town of Papantla. Tajín Clásico Seasoning. El Tajin war dem Gott des Windes, Huracán, und des Blitzes, Tajín, nach dem auch die Stadt benannt wurde, geweiht. It has become the focus of the site because of its unusual design and good state of preservation. Two musicians are playing a turtle shell drum and clay rattles. [10], The Cumbre Tajín has been criticized for its emphasis on modern shows rather than on cultural events. Its most imposing structure is the Pyramid of the Niches, named for the approximately 365 recesses on its four sides. The central panels depict the gods responding or performing a ritual of their own. [44], Building A has two levels, stepped frets and niches and is reminiscent of structures found in the Yucatán. bis 900. Festungsstadt San Miguel de Allende und Wallfahrtskirche Jesús de Nazareno in Atotonilco (2008) | [23][24], The first archeologists reached the site in the early 20th century and included Teobert Maler, Edward Seler, Francisco del Paso y Troncoso and Herbert and Ellen Spinden. It was prominent in ancient times as well. It was originally a great urban center that flourished from around 800 to 1150 ce. Located in the state of Veracruz, El Tajin was at its height from the early 9th to the early 13th century. The liquid is protected by a reclining chacmool, who is speaking. These buildings are situated on a platform-terrace with was formed on natural contours and filled in spaces. Its cultural influence extended all along the Gulf and penetrated into the Maya region and the high plateaux of central Mexico. [30], The entrance to the site is located at the south end. [1] The religion was based on the movements of the planets, the stars and the Sun and Moon,[14] with the Mesoamerican ballgame and pulque having extremely important parts. The interior of the pyramid is rocks and earth. Cabañas-Hospiz in Guadalajara (1997) | [10] Many of the cultural, craft and gastronomic events occur at the adjacent Parque Takilhsukut which just located just outside the archeological site. The word Tajin means “The Sacred city of the Dead and of the Thunder in Storm”. It is located at the northwest corner of the Great Xicalcoluihqui and at the base of Tajin Chico. Access to the first level of the pyramid, which is lined with niches, is via a single staircase on the west side or a double staircase on the east side. El Tajín was left to the jungle and remained covered and silent for over 500 years. [2], In 1785, an official by the name of Diego Ruiz stumbled upon the Pyramid of the Niches, whilst looking for clandestine tobacco plantings breaching the royal monopoly in this isolated area rarely visited by the authorities. Niches are also found underneath the stairway along the east face, which indicates that the stairway was a later addition. Felszeichnungen in der Sierra de San Francisco (1993) | Nach ihr wurde die Tajín-Kultur benannt. and during this time numerous [19], From 600 to 1200 CE, El Tajín was a prosperous city that eventually controlled much of what is now modern Veracruz state. [17][37], The ritual function of the building is not primarily calendaric. The entrance to the site is located at the south end. The southwest panel has a figure dressed as an eagle seated in a vat of liquid, probably pulque, and being fed by a female figure on the left and a male on the right. Präkolumbische Stadt Teotihuacán (1987) | El Tajin was the only site in Mexico where I was able to get my “over 60’s free entry” –everywhere else it has been limited to Mexican citizens and registered overseas residents. [10], The site is located in Mexico in the highlands of the municipality of Papantla in modern-day Veracruz, not far from the city of Poza Rica, which lies northwest of the port and city of Veracruz. He claimed the natives had kept the place secret. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 26. This seems to have been the most important god of the culture as other depictions are found in other places at the site. There have been a number of research projects as well as reconstruction projects and projects to make more of the site accessible to visitors. Our first pyramid in Mexico, cannot wait to see more. Este monumento destaca por su belleza y cuando se menciona El Tajín, generalmente se piensa que se hace referencia sólo a la famosa pirámide. The center figure has his arms held back by the one on the left. Altstadt von Morelia (1991) | El Tajín is a pre-Columbian archeological site in southern Mexico and is one of the largest and most important cities of the Classic era of Mesoamerica. The sculpture is similar in style to the carved stone yokes of Veracruz. [10], In 2009, the event added the Encuentro Internacional de Voladores (International Encounter of Voladores). [11], While ballcourts are common in Mesoamerica, El Tajin distinguishes itself by having seventeen. There are scrolls indicating speech from the sacrifice as well as a depiction of the skeletal god. [38], Sculpture from the temple is largely fragmentary. Much of this section was created by using massive amounts of landfill. Im frühen 19. This temple was obviously of great symbolic importance to the people of El Tajin: it once contained exactly 365 niches, marking its connection to the solar year. Um 1200 wurde die Stätte wieder verlassen. The site and museum take around 2-3hrs to visit at a fairly leisurely pace. The name Tajín means "thunder" in the Totonac language. This area is one of the oldest sections of the city, and is more than 86,100 square feet (8,000 m2). However, there are no records by any Europeans about the place prior to the late 18th century. It is flanked by four high buildings, named Buildings 16, 18, 19 and 20, which were topped by temples. Nearby buildings A and B were palaces. You do not want to miss this. Share our journey! This is part of an initial activity before the game itself starts. What is being requested is pulque, indicated by a glyph indicating the mythical origin of the drink and a split image of the god of pulque above the scene. Voladores come from as far as San Luis Potosi and Guatemala. Präkolumbische Stadt und Nationalpark von Palenque (1987) | The sacrificed player appears here, whole and with a pot under his arm. The other structure is the Great Ballcourt, the largest court at El Tajin. Stepped frets are seen in other parts of Mesoamerica but rarely to this extent. The small buildings that surround this pyramid are meant to complement it. [59] However, the Centro de Artes Indígenas de Veracruz states that it works very hard to preserve and promote Totonac culture through the event, sponsoring events such as traditional cooking, painting and the ritual of the Voladores. The northwest panel shows the beginning of the ballgame. Events include those traditional to the Totonac culture as well as modern arts and events from cultures from as far as Tibet. Behind these buildings is a large plaza with small low structures on its edges. It is also more easily defended than other parts of the city. The city was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage in the 1990s as all the monuments at El Tajín, including their surrounding landscape, have survived virtually unaltered over the centuries, hidden from man by the tropical jungle. "Son architecture, unique en Mésoamérique, est caractérisée par l’élaboration de bas reliefs gravés sur des colonnes et des frises. [52], Building 5 is considered to be the stateliest of the El Tajin site. [4][8] “Its architecture, which is unique in Mesoamerica, is characterized by elaborate carved reliefs on the columns and frieze. The other structure on this platform is called the Annex or the Building of the Tunnels, as it is connected to the Building of the Columns by a passageway. This is the only multistoried palace found outside the Mayan areas. The building was covered in cement several times over its history, and each layer of this cement was painted in blue rather than the more common red. This allowed for more intensive investigation of the area. [33], This is called the Arroyo Group because two streams surround it on three sides. One has survived mostly intact and is now in the site museum. At the top of the pyramid there were tablets framed by grotesque serpent-dragons. The stairs are made from a mixture of lime, sand and clay without a stone core. [43], Building B is a two-story structure that was used as a residence and classified as a palace. From the early centuries, objects from Teotihuacan are abundant. To further this effect, the inside of the frets were painted dark red and the exterior portion light blue, similar to turquoise. Biosphärenreservat Sian Ka'an (1987) | [51], Just south of Buildings 3 and 23 is Building 15, which is only partially excavated. By this time, he had uncovered most of the major buildings and established that Tajín was one of the most important cities of ancient Mexico. Slaves for service and sacrifice were also sold here. This is a wall, which from above forms a giant stepped fret and encloses about 129,000 square feet (12,000 m2). The seven stories of the pyramid are composed of gently sloping walling divided into panels of varying widths. There are several architectural features here which are unique to the place or seen in only rarely in Mesoamerica. The voladores appear every half-hour at the pole and circle erected just outside the main gate. [42] The roof of Building C was more than 1,600 square feet (150 m2) in size and covered two rooms on the west side as well as main room which opened to the east through five piers. There are also fears that large numbers of visitors to the site for events such as concerts by names such as Alejandra Guzmán damage the site. [60], Coordinates: 20°26′53.01″N 97°22′41.67″W / 20.4480583°N 97.3782417°W / 20.4480583; -97.3782417, "Tajin" redirects here. The El Tajín settlement is contemporary with Mayan settlements like Chichen Itza and Uxmal as well as settlements on central plateau like Tula and Xochicalco. [49], Building 3 or the Blue Temple has some features that set it apart from other pyramids at the site. [11] Total site extends for 1,056 hectares (4.08 sq mi). The court has a general east-west alignment and is 198 feet (60 m) long and 34.5 feet (10.5 m) wide. Er setzt sich gen Osten und beginnt, mit einer kleinen Trommel und einer Flöte zu spielen, während die vier Winde sich drehend das Seil um den Unterleib wickeln. [6], When it was rediscovered by officialdom in 1785, the site was known to the local Totonac, whose ancestors may also have built the city, as El Tajín, which was said to mean “of thunder or lightning bolt”. [14] The site has no major settlements located next to it. Camino Real de Tierra Adentro (2010) | It is probably that this building was used by priests or rulers to receive visitors, petitioners and others. [12] El Tajín reached its peak after the fall of Teotihuacan, and conserved many cultural traits inherited from that civilization. [9], It is also the site of the annual Cumbre Tajin Festival, which occurs each March featuring indigenous and foreign cultural events as well as concerts by popular musicians. Between them are intertwined slashes, the symbol of the ballgame and a ball. At the center of the scene is a temple with the rain and wind gods seated on top and a vat of liquid within. After 1200 AD, the mighty Mexico-Tenochtitlan kingdom took control of the region, causing abandonment and destruction of the s… Its architecture, which is unique in Mesoamerica, is … A part of the Classic Veracruz culture, El Tajín flourished from 600 to 1200 C.E. One of the panels at the Pyramid of the Niches shows a ceremony being held at a cacao tree. [4], At the end of the Classic period, El Tajín survived the widespread social collapse, migrations and destructions that forced the abandonment of many population centers at the end of this period. [58], The Cumbre Tajin is an annual artistic and cultural festival which is held at the site in March. However, the one on the northeast side has been completely destroyed due to centuries-old trail that was used when this area was still jungle. Both are small temple-like platforms. Als letzter klettert der fünfte als Sonne auf die Spitze des Stammes. Access to the top of the pyramid, where the temple once stood, is via a double staircase on the east side. These were painted yellow, blue, red and black. Overlooking this scene is the death deity who rises from a vat of liquid, perhaps pulque. One of the most mysterious is the ancient city of El Tajín in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. It is unknown if the similarity between this building and the Pyramid of the Niches indicates a relationship between the two. The stones are arranged in controlled lines and delicate proportions. He was also the first to speculate that the pyramid was part of a larger city. Panorama of El Tajin Archaeological Site - Veracruz - Mexico - 04 (15835815320).jpg 4,912 × 1,080; 2.3 MB. Some of the events include musical concerts, experiencing a temazcal, theatrical events and visiting El Tajin at night, with a total over 5,000 activities. The 'Pyramid of the Niches', a masterpiece of ancient Mexican and American architecture, reveals the astronomical and symbolic significance of the buildings.”[4] The site is one of the most important in Mexico and the most important in the state of Veracruz. It has stairways on both the east and west sides that lead to the top of the second level. Thirty percent of the revenue the event generates goes toward scholarships for Totonaca youth. [26], El Tajín was inscribed as a World Heritage Site in 1992, because of its historical significance and architecture and engineering. [11] In ancient times, this city was located in the northeast corner of what is called Mesoamerica,[12] and controlled an area from between the Cazones and Tecolutla Rivers to the modern state of Puebla. The blood falls into the vat and to refill it with pulque. Danach lassen sich die vier Winde kopfüber langsam mit 13 Drehungen auf die Erde nieder. El Tajín (spanisch-totonakisch „Der Blitz“) ist eine präkolumbische Ruinenstadt nahe der Ostküste Mexikos bei der Stadt Papantla, südöstlich von Poza Rica de Hidalgo im Bundesstaat Veracruz. It is part of one of the last building complexes built at El Tajín. [56], The southeast panel illustrates the opening ritual when the principal participant is elaborately dressed and is being handed a bundle of spears. However, as the term was already in the literature about the site, it has stuck. Der ausgesuchte Baumstamm musste mindestens 25 m hoch und die Seillänge genau abgemessen sein, damit die vier fliegenden Voladores exakt 13 Umkreisungen des Stammes erreichen, welche einen Zeitraum von 52 (4x13) Jahren symbolisieren. Bekannt ist El Tajín auch durch sein kulturelles Ballspiel, das möglicherweise mit Menschenopferungen endete. The site museum is also located here. Archäologische Stätten von Paquimé in Casas Grandes (1998) | This led to the building of many pyramids with temples and seventeen ballcourts, more than any other Mesoamerican site. [45], The Building of the Columns dominates the highest portion of Tajin Chico. [7] The Totonacs established the nearby settlement of Papantla after the fall of El Tajín. The structure originally was covered in stucco which served as the base for paint. [32], The site museum is divided into two parts: an enclosed building and a roofed area covering large stone sculpture fragments. El Tajin has lots of stories to share, even if most of the site and old city is destroyed. El Tajin was founded following the abandonment of the city of Teotihuacan. [27] The finished roofs were nearly a meter thick and almost perfectly flat. Another feature shared only with the Mayans is the use of a light blue paint. File history. It is a large stone slab sculpted to depict four individuals standing in pairs with a figure of intertwined snakes between the two pairs. There are numerous buildings in this section but many are not accessible to visitors due to the lack of trails and many have yet to be explored. The principal participant is supine on a kind of a sofa. In addition, the Danza de los Voladores is enacted at the entrance to the site and is considered a requirement for visitors. Biosphärenreservat El Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar (2013) | It had been thrown down from the top of the pyramid in ancient times and broken. Inseln und geschützte Gebiete im Golf von Kalifornien (2005) | It has vertical sides and is about 213 feet (65 m) long. [41] Tajin Chico is so named because it was initially thought to be a separate but related site. The sides of the enclosure are formed by a slender platform with sloping sides and free standing niches, resembling the Pyramid of the Niches. It took shape during the late Classic period and reached its peak development during the transition to the Post-Classic, between 800 and 1150 A.D. At the center of the false stairway are true stairs leading upwards under an arch to the first level of the palace. El Tajin - El Tajín is a pre-Columbian archeological site and one of the largest and most important cities of the Classic era of Mesoamerica. wahrscheinlich von den Totonaken gegründet, die sie vermutlich auch als Hauptstadt nutzten. [17] Impressions of baskets, tamale wrappers and other items have been found in the dried cement. To lighten the load and to bind the layers of cement, pumice stones and pottery shards were mixed into the cement. Die Pyramide hat 365 Nischen, was höchstwahrscheinlich ein Sonnenjahr symbolisieren soll. One holds a large knife in his left hand and gestures with his right. Su auge fue de principios del siglo IX hasta principios del siglo XIII. El TajínThe El Tajín archaeological site is located in the municipality of Papantla, in the north-central region of the state of Veracruz, Mexico, in the foothills of the Sierra Madre Oriental. The snakes represent the ball game marker called the tlaxmalacatle in Aztec times. It is also affected by a weather phenomenon called “nortes.” These are cold fronts with winds that come from the north and down the Tamaulipas and Veracruz coasts. It is an immense acropolis composed of numerous palaces and other civil structures. Bei diesem Spiel mussten die Mannschaften (die Anzahl der Spieler ist nicht bekannt; es gibt allerdings Abbildungen, die insgesamt vier Personen zeigen) den Ball mit der Hüfte in einen hochgelegenen Ring befördern. This building is thought to the last built with niches. [6] The city began to have extensive influence starting around this time,[12] which can be best seen at the neighboring site of Yohualichan, whose buildings show the kinds of niches that define El Tajin. [34][35] The east and west pyramids of the arroyo group each held three temples at the top. Universitätscampus der Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (2007) | [31], The park is named Parque Takilhsukut and is located about one km outside the site proper. The figure on the right holds a large knife which is at the center figure's neck. 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