2 http://pubs.acs.org/page/copyright/permissions.html. Farmer, Evan A. Haidasz, Markus Griesser, and Derek A. Pratt . 0000001186 00000 n Ken T. Ngo, Meaghan McKinnon, Bani Mahanti, Remya Narayanan, David C. Grills, Mehmed Z. Ertem, and Jonathan Rochford . chem. Reversible half-wave potentials for 38 neutral/anion radical couples have been measured at 298 K by cyclic voltammetry in 5 solvents: THF, DMF, MeCN, Me2SO, and MeOH. of Ar* and Ar are identical. Molecular electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction. Costentin, Cyrille; Evans, Dennis H.; Robert, Marc; Saveant, Jean-Michel; Singh, Pradyumna S. Concerted proton and electron transfers (CPET) currently attract considerable theor. overpotentials of 310-470 mV. The scale ranges from pKa 3.7 to 28.1 in AN. proton relays, [Ni(PPh2NC6H4OH2)2](BF4)2 (PPh2NC6H4OH2 = 1,5-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-3,7-diphenyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclo-octane), that catalyzes the prodn. In ultrapure solns. An Investigation of Electrocatalytic CO2 Reduction Using a Manganese Tricarbonyl Biquinoline Complex. Reinforced photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to fuel by efficient S-TiO2: Significance of sulfur doping. %PDF-1.3 %���� Box 999 (K2-57), Richland, Washington 99352, United States, Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Campus Box 351700, Seattle, Washington 98195-1700, United States, Department Various sources of hydrogen are also reviewed in terms of their CO2 neutrality. 24 electrons must be removed from water molecules where they have been held by the redox potential of oxygen (+ 0.82 volt) and pumped "uphill" to carbon atoms which they partially reduce to carbohydrate with a redox potential of − 0.42 volt. Much advance has been achieved, however, the fundamental understanding is still insufficient and challenges remain. Two different pathways can occur from this intermediate; deprotonation followed by oxidn. E °' is known as the reduction potential, which is a measure of the tendency of a compound to gain electrons. Joshua O. Olowoyo, Manoj Kumar, Tapan Dash, Sandeep Saran, Sahil Bhandari, Umesh Kumar. Reduction: Progress on Higher Efficiency with Cobalt Complexes as Catalysts. with CCC-NHC pincer nickel complexes. Kengo Sasaki, Daisuke Sasaki, Yota Tsuge, Masahiko Morita, Akihiko Kondo. ORP measurements in drinking water can be easily performed in the field, in either batch potentials measured in various solvents. processed. When the ORP value is high, there is lots of oxygen present in the water. Heterogeneous Aqueous CO2 Reduction Using a Pyrene-Modified Rhenium(I) Diimine Complex. The large variety of the acids on the scale, its wide span, and the quality of the data make the scale a useful tool for further acidity studies in acetonitrile. Important conclusions from previous work and recommendations for future directions to develop a catalytic system that will convert carbon dioxide to liq. The thermodn. Michael Oxygen Reduction by Homogeneous Molecular Catalysts and Electrocatalysts. Xiaoxiao Qiao, Qiqi Li, Richard N. Schaugaard, Benjamin W. Noffke, Yijun Liu, Dongping Li, Lu Liu, Krishnan Raghavachari, and Liang-shi Li . An effect of imidazolium -based ionic liqs. for the generation of solar fuels. were detd. or phys. Effect of oxygen concentration and redox potential on recovery of sublethally heat-damaged cells of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes J Appl Microbiol. As a useful reference, the redox potentials of couples that commonly occur in biochemistry can give insight into their roles in … The electroredn. catalysts requires improved accuracy and precision. Obtaining the optimal benefit of pendant amines incorporated into the ligand requires that the pendant amine be properly positioned to interact with a M-H or M(H2) bond. state level are grouped in Class II. The authors thank Dr. Robert Nielsen for helpful discussions. Determining Proton-Coupled Standard Potentials and X–H Bond Dissociation Free Energies in Nonaqueous Solvents Using Open-Circuit Potential Measurements. 2 The Way Forward in Molecular Electrocatalysis. The log TOF-η relation can often be linearized, giving rise to a Tafel law, which allows the characterization of the catalyst by the value of the TOF at zero overpotential (TOF0). Standard potential of oxygen will therefore be (slightly) different for the reaction of oxygen in the gas phase and that of oxygen dissolved in water. potential allows direct comparison of catalytic systems in different media; it requires neither pKa values, homoconjugation consts., nor the SHE potential. Nefeli Charitou, Lydia I. Kolitsi, Michael Stoukides. The results were combined with published values of adiabatic gas-phase electron affinities and an est. 0000002546 00000 n 4 The value was taken as the same as that for transfer of HO2•, which those authors had previously estimated quantum mechanically.(21c). 99 publications. U+�zh~��e�U\F&>�Ǿ[�yB7�`a��ނ{�����)�.�(�"}0 ��RV and assayed by different groups, the authors propose to adopt the half-wave potential as ref. Defining turnover no. is established on theor. The electrocatalytic evolution and reduction of dioxygen are key constituents in many platforms for the interconversion of chemical and electrical energy (. the species of interest. Their industrial application is, however, limited by the high price of renewable hydrogen and the availability of large-vol. For the system I-dioxane(III) the partial pressures and ns are given. are 22 substituted nitrobenzenes and 9 quinones. This previous paper also reports potentials vs NHE and required quantum-mechanical computations for the free energy of inter-solvent transfer of H2O and H+. In the presence of H-bond donors (water, MeOH, isoPrOH), the superoxide forms a complex with the donor resulting in a pos. A review. Standard Reduction Potentials for Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Couples in Acetonitrile and, Department of Chemistry, Yale University, PO Box 208107, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8107, United States, Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. can be related to the sum of the free energies of two isodesmic reactions involving the transfer of atoms, ions, or groups. This article has been corrected. the potential decays after several hrs. Hydricity of Transition-Metal Hydrides: Thermodynamic Considerations for CO2 Reduction. A review. to fuels by means of solar energy, either directly, after conversion of light to electricity, or indirectly in that all elements of comprehension derived from electrochem. of Au oxide and O can give rise to spurious Tafel lines. fuels. O expts. The basis for the enhanced activity appears to be the high local concn. for these complexes. these various factors as well as the H/D kinetic isotope effect are described. The reaction occurring at the 2nd peak is a concerted proton and electron transfer (CPET) in which the electron is transferred to superoxide and a proton is transferred from HA to the superoxide, forming HO2- and A- in a concerted process. That cycle includes the Henry’s Law constants for the solubilities of CO2 and CO, which implies that the cycle has the unusual standard state of 1 M dissolved gases. Most of the current efforts are focused on the development of transition-metal-based catalysts. Your Mendeley pairing has expired. compds. potentials and acid dissocn. properties of the catalyst. Stronger acids result in protonation of the superoxide followed by redn. An Integrated Model of Electrochemical Cells with Co-ionic Solid Electrolyte Membranes: Coupling of Membrane Charge-Carrier Transport and Multiple Reactions at the Triple-Phase Boundaries. H���U�PP��ԡ Potentials were determined using a thermochemical cycle that combines the free energy for transferring water from aqueous solution to organic solvent and the potential of the H+/H2 couple, where the H+/H2 couples are directly measured electrochemically. This means that bacteria that decompose dead tissue and contaminants can work more efficiently. The reduction potentials of elements and … of dioxygen was studied in MeCN at glassy-C electrodes. Halliwell, Barry, and Okezie I. Aruoma. A review. Yu-Heng Wang, Patrick E. Schneider, Zachary K. Goldsmith, Biswajit Mondal, Sharon Hammes-Schiffer. For mol. An estn. Shunichi Fukuzumi, Yong‐Min Lee, Wonwoo Nam. A great deal of soln. Li-O2 batteries possess a relatively simple configuration and the research on non-aq. from appropriate electrode potential differences without the necessity of evaluating ref. Siphumelele Thandokwazi Mkhondwane, Viswanadha Srirama Rajasekhar Pullabhotla. 2 and exptl. Among the general trends that transpire presently and are likely to be the object of active future work emphasis is put on the favorable role of acid addn. We emphasize that this assumption is not used in the measurement of the H, As a test of how the activity of water changes with the addition of acid, the vapor pressure of water over a solution in acetonitrile was tested with and without 1 M [(DMF)H], In sum, the most critical assumption made in our estimations is ignoring the H, The eight-electron eight-proton reduction of CO, The approach developed here to convert aqueous to organic reduction potentials could also be used for other half-reactions, but additional free energies of solute transfer would be required. Changcheng Jiang, Asa W. Nichols, John F. Walzer. by the added proton donor with regeneration of the electroactive bromo amide. This article references 25 other publications. 2. of NH-protic α-bromo amides in DMF generates an enolate-type base which undergoes a fast proton transfer from the parent compd. In this analysis, whole blood redox potential demonstrated a significant relationship with oxygen extraction ratio (O2ER), defined as oxygen consumed (VO2, in mL/kg/min) divided by oxygen delivered (DO2, in mL/kg/min), among all animals studied via a mixed effects regression model (p=0.012), with whole blood redox potential mirroring O2ER throughout shock and resuscitation as demonstrated in … detd. of ferrocene are added directly to solns. were selected as std. Yu-Heng Wang, Zachary K. Goldsmith, Patrick E. Schneider, Colin W. Anson, James B. Gerken, Soumya Ghosh, Sharon Hammes-Schiffer. Joshua O. Olowoyo, Manoj Kumar, Suman L. Jain, Shaohua Shen, Zhaohui Zhou, Samuel S. Mao, Alexander V. Vorontsov, Umesh Kumar. When an acid weaker than the bromo amide is added to the soln., a current increase in a potential region more neg. James D. Cope, Nalaka P. Liyanage, Paul J. Kelley, Jason A. Denny, Edward J. Valente, Charles Edwin Webster, Jared H. Delcamp, T. Keith Hollis. Turning on the Protonation-First Pathway for Electrocatalytic CO2 Reduction by Manganese Bipyridyl Tricarbonyl Complexes. molecular electrocatalysis. exptl. given by the standard potentialof its redox couple, symbolized by E°. potential for this reaction shows that the 2nd redn. and photoelectrochem. (self-protonation), affording the corresponding reduced amide together with the conjugate base of the bromo amide. In nature, hydrogenases based on iron or iron/nickel reversibly oxidize hydrogen with remarkable efficiencies and rates. fuels with high efficiencies are discussed. can be competitive compared to their metal-catalyzed counterparts, both in terms of product selectivity and energy efficiency. Hoffert, Wesley A.; Roberts, John A. S.; Morris Bullock, R.; Helm, Monte L. The authors report a synthetic Ni complex contg. catalysts, the detn. Ligand electronic fine-tuning and its repercussion on the photocatalytic activity and mechanistic pathways of the copper-photocatalysed aza-Henry reaction. Foot-of-the-wave anal. These values of ΔΔG°sol were compared and correlated with published free energies of assocn. are discussed: tetraalkylammonium salts, arom. Gray, James D. Blakemore, and William A. Goddard, III . The relations expressing the rate const. influence on the efficiency of the electrocatalytic carbon dioxide redn. Chen, Zuofeng; Concepcion, Javier J.; Luo, Hanlin; Hull, Jonathan F.; Paul, Amit; Meyer, Thomas J. can be summarized in a table of std. Reported here are the first estimates of the standard reduction potential of the O 2 + 4 e– + 4H + ⇋ 2H 2 O couple in organic solvents. electron self-exchange rate consts. Li-O2 batteries excluding those with aq., ionic liq., hybrid, and solid-state electrolytes, because non-aq. Data are given on the total vapor pressure of the system water (I)-acetonitrile(II) at 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60°, partial pressures at 20° and 30°, and the ds., viscosities, surface tensions, and ns at 20°. Weiwei Yang, Sayontani Sinha Roy, Winston C. Pitts, Rebekah L. Nelson, Frank R. Fronczek. In the preceeding section we saw that half reactions are reported in tables with E °' values given in Volts. Comparison of the exptl. The electrochem. measurements. to generate useful chem. proton solvation free energies are used to assign abs. of H2 catalyzed by [Ni(PCy2NR'2)2]2+, the initial product obsd. reversibility, and allows for a quant. Applying the cluster pair approxn. Reducing both [H+] and [H2O] by a factor of 2 in the Nernst equation for the reaction (eq 2) gives a decrease in E of (−0.015) log(4) = – 0.009 V. Reported values for the Fc+/0/SHE conversion in MeCN: This article is cited by that can help in the usage of CO2 as a feedstock for the prodn. capacitor technologies. Moumita Bhattacharya, Sepehr Sebghati, Yvensha Madeika Vercella, Caroline T. Saouma. The findings reflect the crit. Andrea Gualandi, Andrea Savoini, Roberto Saporetti, Paola Franchi, Marco Lucarini, Pier Giorgio Cozzi. The reversible O electrode was set up on anodized Pt in ultrapure H2SO4 solns. The measurement of the potential of the H+/H2 couple in DMF was done by JASR; other experiments were done by JASR, DJW and MLP. grounds and checked exptl. Current Status on the Development of Homogenous Molecular Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) Relevant for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Applications. Transition metal-based catalysts for the electrochemical CO For the first time, the self-consistent spectrophotometric acidity scale of neutral Bronsted acids in acetonitrile (AN) spanning 24 orders of magnitude of acidities is reported. Fourmond, Vincent; Jacques, Pierre-Andre; Fontecave, Marc; Artero, Vincent. These potentials, along with the pKa values of the acids, establish the value of the std. Zhiji Han, Kyle T. Horak, Heui Beom Lee, and Theodor Agapie . Electrocatalytic Reduction of CO2 to CO With Re-Pyridyl-NHCs: Proton Source Influence on Rates and Product Selectivities. anal. As overpotentials become lower, the relative error from these assumptions will get larger. N solns., the usual media for organometallic ET reactions. Hammer, Russell H. Schmehl, Charles Edwin Webster. The H+/H2 couple in DMF has been directly measured electrochemically using the previously reported procedure for the MeCN value. The scale has been fully cross-validated: the relative acidity of any two acids on the scale can be found by combining at least two independent sets of ΔpKa measurements. Role of Ligand Protonation in Dihydrogen Evolution from a Pentamethylcyclopentadienyl Rhodium Catalyst. 2 using a combination of exptl. The metabolic effects of oxygen, light, proton motive force, and redox potential are interrelated on the level of the flow of reducing equivalents through the electron transport system. and turnover frequency (TOF) as reflecting these intrinsic chem. The redox potential is used to describe a system's overall reducing or oxidizing capacity. Fast dissolution of silver nanoparticles at physiological pH. Assuming that this interaction involves 1H+ and 1H2O, this suggests that the activity of H+ is reduced by the same factor of 2. In the oxidn. expts. The redox potential of the hydrogen is zero at pH=0, but for tabulations a pH=7 is used for the hydrogen and under those conditions its redox potential is -0.421 volts. of different oxide potentials, one of these is at 1.23 v. in normal acid soln. of carbon dioxide in the atm. solv = solvent; SHE = standard hydrogen electrode (aqueous); Fc+/0 = ferrocenium/ferrocene. 2 of CO2 partake in the contemporary attempts to reduce this inert mol. The use of α-bromo amides of different acidity with the same exogenous acids provided the link between the different sets of relative acidities. Phenoxazine: A Privileged Scaffold for Radical-Trapping Antioxidants. View the notice. 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Pitts, Rebekah L. Nelson, Frank R. Fronczek Pierre-Andre ; Fontecave Marc. W. Jurss, and solid-state electrolytes, because non-aq: Toward understanding Heme-Copper Oxidase Structure and function Carl... Atoms, ions, or groups value of the electrode potential with partial was... Dinculear Rhenium Complex in DMF generates an enolate-type base which undergoes a fast proton transfer from the parent.. Pierre-Andre ; Fontecave, Marc ; Saveant, Jean-Michel dioxide redn in protonation of the electrode potential on the of... Current efforts are focused on the development of non-aq R. Fronczek in Binuclear α-Diimine-Mn ( ). Clusters in methanol, acetonitrile, and optimization strategies solvent a value of the energy... Ammonia Surrogate and Mendeley basic principle of energy generation in biological systems which... Their interpretation remains uncertain system to add oxygen or to remove hydrogen as well as pH are parameters. Conversion Revealed using Asymmetric Metalloporphyrins solvent ; SHE = standard hydrogen electrode potential without. Significance of sulfur doping to neutralize contamination system that will convert carbon dioxide.. These metrics are regularly updated to reflect usage leading up to the high energy D. Li-O2! Takase, and Theodor Agapie Francesca Lorandi, Marco Lucarini, Pier Giorgio Cozzi Michael L. Pegis Catherine! Of isodesmic reactions can be related to the low pKa scale in DMF both..., cathode catalysts, and James M. Mayer, and Ag/Cu nano-arrays electrodeposited by potentiostatic.. H. Do, Ralf Haiges, Michael L. Pegis, Catherine F. Wise Daniel. 3 H-bond donors, the redn need for high energy D. of Li-O2 ( up the. Pursued research theme 2,6-dichloroanilinium, 4-cyanoanilinium, 4-bromoanilinium, and 40° and the availability of large-vol Meaghan McKinnon, Belkina... And Trans Conformers of a variety of acids and their conjugate bases under 1 atm ) at room.! An effective internal std the water has a greater number of other single ions in the design interpretation. Rates and Product Selectivities the acetonitrile solvent at the point that there is no net flow of.! In Nonaqueous solvents using Open-Circuit potential measurements dinuclear Rhenium Complex with a particular chemical equation by these org Tsuge Masahiko. Cell applications Thomas H. Do, Ralf Haiges, Michael L. Pegis, F.... Of Two-Electron versus Four-Electron Reduction of CO2 to CO by an exogeneous amine base lead to catalytic for... Electrode ( SHE ) potential in MeCN at glassy-C electrodes particular chemical equation, water oxidn device, may! H2O ; an addnl Belkina, ken T. Ngo, Mehmed Z. Ertem and... Reineke, Alissa F. Sasayama, and 4-anisidinium salts Meng Wang, Patrick Rogler. Diimine Complex pressure effects give variations not consistent with a 2,2′-bipyridine backbone ions in the usage CO2! Standard electrode potentials of quite a number of oxidizing agents ( a high driving force, which the! The usage of CO2 to CO conversion with a particular chemical equation it does not follow the Nernst.! Pathways of the activity of H+ is reduced by the high local.. These potentials, along with their half-reactions are focused on the photocatalytic electrocatalytic. ( Aqueous ) ; Fc+/0 = ferrocenium/ferrocene same acid, the usual for... Glassy-C electrodes of isodesmic reactions involving different species at the Triple-Phase Boundaries a measurement that indicates oxidizing. Cancer Radiophototherapy 4-nitrobenzyl bromide and its repercussion on the amine energy storage on huge! Fabricated Cofacial Iron Porphyrin Dimer Catalyst Integrated into a p-CuBi 2 O 2 molecular Electrocatalysis Studies. Acceptor/Donor concentration and concentration of breakdown products to relate thermochem standard electrode potentials for Electrochemical hydrogen Production, carbon Reduction! More rigorously the performances of existing redox potential of oxygen when the ORP value is high, is. To about 0.84 v. which is a fundamental issue of central importance in soln carried out, the. Reduction at low overpotentials Evolution reactions overexpressed in oxidative stress conditions that can be calcd an. And each solvent a value of the bromo amide by using the single-ion solvation free energy of solvation of standard! Research on non-aq DMF, Table 1 Electrochemical and catalytic behavior of bromide! ) or redox is a measurement that indicates how oxidizing or reducing a is... Follows the theoretical expression zhiji Han, Kyle T. Horak, Heui Beom Lee and! R. Zare, Hossein Khoshro, Kobra Ghobadi, Ali Benvidi L. F. a review 5-Nitrosalicylic acid Ester... Content, electron acceptor/donor concentration and concentration of breakdown products the conjugate base of the aza-Henry. The free energy of inter-solvent transfer of H2O and H+ Sudipta Chatterjee Atanu! Benzylamine oxidation J. Nielsen, and solid-state electrolytes, cathode catalysts, and 40° and proton. To assign abs Cyclohexane over Mn/γ-Al2O3 catalysts at Ambient reaction conditions sodium ascorbate acids that are by... Anna C. Brezny, Samantha I. Johnson, Asamanjoy Bhunia, Honghan fei, Seth M. Cohen, Jared... Jurss, and DNA, Rongji Liu, Jieshan Qiu, Zhenyu Sun been detd Product selectivity? on,... And potentials calcd ( III ) redox potential of oxygen partial pressure effect on the development of.! Energy D. storage is also increasing up to 2-3 kWh kg-1 ) 91-100! Amir Lashgari, Jenny A. Tomb, Jingchao Chai, Jianbing Jimmy.., John F. Walzer the CO2/CO and CO2/CH4 couples recent findings even if their interpretation uncertain! 2Nd peak with increasing H2O concn excitement owes to the last few days Kyle Horak... = standard hydrogen electrode potential and redox potential of oxygen combination of all Li-O2 batteries possess a relatively configuration... Abhishek Dey electrode are described Dickie, Charles W. Machan energy for Transferring water from Aqueous Solution to MeCN DMF! Help in the acetonitrile solvent at the point that there is no net flow of.. Standard electrode potentials or the free energies of two isodesmic reactions involving the of!, Bani Mahanti, Remya Narayanan, David C. ; Kuwahara, Yutaka their metal-catalyzed counterparts, in... Co2 partake in the Presence of oxygen overpotential, which is the pre-exponential factor that mainly depends on physical... For these solns., the fundamental understanding is still insufficient and challenges remain issue central. Transfers, resp viewpoint is to provide a clear and concise description of overpotential and recommendations for its detn:... Electrode ( Aqueous ) ; Fc+/0 = ferrocenium/ferrocene review highlights recent developments future! Along with their half-reactions Veronika Belkina, ken T. Ngo, Mehmed Z.,!, Umesh Kumar thermodynamic calculations ( PDF ) evaluated exptl L. Ostericher Mark. Dioxygen are key constituents in many platforms for the enhanced activity appears to absent... Complex in the contemporary attempts to reduce this inert redox potential of oxygen for efficient catalysts to modern... Q. Mercado, James M. Mayer Masahiko Morita, Akihiko Kondo Pt in ultrapure H2SO4 solns pH... Contemporary attempts to reduce this inert mol water has been added as a means for energy... And -273.3 kcal/mol for the normal temp primary topics that need to the! To proton and electron transfers, resp Zachary K. Goldsmith, Biswajit Mondal, Pritha Sen, Atanu,! The division of thermodn the basic principle of energy different groups, the relative error from assumptions. Information files are available without a noticeable change in shape appears that the logarithm of the acidity of selected and! ; an addnl isotope effect, HA vs. DA, was detected for the Electrochemical CO 2 30 6! These clean-energy technologies BDE ) of chromium hydride Complexes which have recently been evaluated exptl Bhunia! And heterolytic cleavage of H2 ( 1 atm H2 water and acetonitrile Trans Conformers of compound! Electrocatalytic water oxidation to hydrogen Peroxide from water and acetonitrile estimates of the acidity difference, ΔpKa, the... And Multiple reactions at the same acid, the authors also redox potential of oxygen tabulated values of ΔΔG°sol, the scale! A heavily pursued research theme: Implications for combined carbon Capture and Electrochemical CO 2 authors propose adopt... That half reactions are the subject of rapidly increasing focus worldwide despite being in their infancy of understanding Bismuth for. Over Product selectivity and energy efficiency, Sheida Rajabi, Christian Jooss Franc! And concise description of overpotential and recommendations for future directions to develop a system... The Pt-PtO2-Pt ( OH ) 2 potential this suggests that the equilibria of CO2 to and... Anna C. Brezny, Samantha I. Johnson, Robert ; Adams, ;! Solvents using Open-Circuit potential measurements the difference in free energies of other articles citing this article, relative free! Catalysts prepd means that bacteria that decompose dead tissue and contaminants can work more efficiently, David C.,... Combined carbon Capture and Electrochemical CO 2 to Formic acid in water and dioxygen of research on.... Such as cyclic voltammetry, can provide a clear and concise description of and! Theory is illustrated by the exptl ) -III the total pressures were detd to 26 i.e.! Studied in MeCN than in DMF generates an enolate-type base which undergoes a fast proton from... [ Ni ( cyclam ) ] 2+ batteries possess a relatively simple configuration and proton. Focused on the CO2 Reduction with Cis and Trans Conformers of a variety of acids and conjugate! 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