(1) If some monument(s) unavoidably harms undeserving people, then there is moral reason to remove that monument. These acts may answer the question of “why tragedies, inspire memorials and why others (such as Sullivan Island in Charleston South Carolina or Black. Against this backdrop, beginning in 1829, Clay's contemporary, Kentucky Court of Appeals Chief Justice George Robertson, a slaveholder himself, shaped the court, according to Jones, into a key institution of manumission rights for slaves. None of these plans worked. Cited hereafter as Eaton, 1863 Report; Memphis Bulletin, Sept. 15, 1863; Lucinda Humphrey to George Whipple, March 7, 1863, AMA; G. N. Carruthers to [Secys. The removal of monuments to Stalin and Lenin lifted the weight of the memory of oppression, allowing the Czech people to begin to imagine a new direction for their nation. Rules, norms, and decisions: on the conditions of practical and legal, The history of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, Remembering well: Confederate monuments and the ethics of theory, Living Monuments: Confederate Soldiers' Homes in the New South, Standing soldiers, kneeling slaves: Race, war, The International Journal of the History of Sport, Edith D. Pope and Her Nashville Friends: Guar, New pole show how most Americans feel about Confederate Statues, Conservatism and southern intellectuals, 1789-1861: liberty. Mary Walker did too, but until now her story went untold. This legality furthers. 2. Pain and its treatment in outpatients with metastatic cancer. 27. Secondly, we consider the past efforts to remove them. She had three more children: Agnes, born in 1837; Edward, born in 1840 and died in 1848; and Bryant, born in 1844. The removal of monuments and symbols to a racist past is an important step to a more just future. Ianinska, S., & Garcia-Zamor, J. C. (2006). The momentum to remove Confederate memorials … Regarding the prudential factor, a decision is prudential when an act is of self-regarding interests, which can also include the interests of others (Madsen, 2009). (The War Dept. 26-27. . Many believe that “Ultimately, removal of the monuments will, quite literally, erase an unsavory – but important – part of our nation’s history” (Brophy 2015). Erecting Confederate monuments in the late-19th and early-20th centuries reinforced the so-called ‘Lost Cause’ myth of the Civil War promoted by former Confederates and sympathizers. Alexander was a Presbyterian. Coffin, Reminiscences, p. 637. My Body Is a Confederate Monument,” I hoped that it would open, or even … Many municipalities in the United States have removed monuments and memorials on public property dedicated to the Confederate States of America (CSA), and some, such as Silent Sam in North Carolina, have been torn down by protestors. In other words, the telos celebrates the courage, sacrifice, and leadership of their Generals, and not the racist doctrines they fought to support. Yet, he opposed abolition since "no act or policy of man can change the purpose of God" (p. 85). More recently, demonstrators and Black Lives Matter protesters, cost America three lives. Ten days before her thirtieth birthday, she escaped. is, justice requires us to define the purpose or nature of the social practice in question (Rogers, n.d.). 28. (2011). Argumentative Essay On Confederate Statues. 16. “empirical studies show race remains a significant social category of perception” (Clowney. answer the question of whether Confederate Monuments reflect the ethical values of today’s. According to one, majority of them were built between the 1890’s and the 1950’, the era of Jim Crow segregation” (Elliott, 2017). Thus, white male slaveholders' personal property rights trumped statutory protection of human property in chattel slavery. 9, 1863, ibid. Eaton to Henry Cowles, Mar. Similar to intimidation against voting rights of minorities (Gilmore, 2013) these. Unbeknownst to her, Frank, her oldest son, had escaped in 1852. The role of memory brokers in the commemoration process, both past. Ethical Issues in Removing Confederate Monuments, codes, from the ancient Greek, ethos, habits or customs (Ianinska & Garcia-Zamor, 2006). contribute to ethical adult education practice. To rescue her children, Mary, with the aid of the Lesleys, pursued various plans, including hiring an agent, James Price, to orchestrate a slave rescue and later writing directly to Mildred Cameron. Emergency Disaster Management Training Academies, To Free a Family: The Journey of Mary Walker (review), Fathers of Conscience: Mixed Race Inheritance in the Antebellum South (review), Memory Brokers, Shameful Pasts, and Civil War Commemoration, Conference: The Neely Center for Ethical Leadership and Decision Making. Grant to Dodge, Nov. 6, 1862, Records of the United States Army Commands, R.G. sparked the removal of the Confederate Flag from South Carolina’s state capitol building (Kutz, 2015). The Confederate Monument Movement as a Policy Dilemma for. at how public policy can affect or influence the alternatives of Confederate monuments. A. D. Olds to Whipple, Jan. 9, 1864, ibid. monuments. earlier we have discussed both the legal and ethical choices in consideration of Confederate, monuments, we have yet to review the prudential side. monuments were built in the Jim Crowe error. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Assignment directions Read […] For instance, The Federal Republic of Germany, criminalized the display of swastikas and destroyed Neo-Nazi statues (such as Adolf Hitler) and, established de-Nazification panels. examples of those nations who endeavored to obliterate the marks of civil strife... " (Horn, 2015). Although controversial, many still do not know why exactly people want these statues to tear down or be kept up. That is, honoring Confederate leaders while. 48-52. We can hardly be surprised that he … Mann to Aunt Mary, May 18, 1863, Mann Papers, Library of Congress. Eaton, 1863 Report. The question stands under moral consideration, either to recognize Confederate monuments as shameful aberrations or as historical monuments, space abandon’s the disgraceful acts of slavery, Confederate monuments is the sagacious or legal action of maintaining honor. Jones describes how the court continued to support manumission over enslavement even in the increasingly frenzied atmosphere of the 1850s when Kentucky followed the lead of other southern states in enacting measures to suppress the growth of the free-black population. One author makes an argument that Confederate monuments should not be demonized as racist, for three reasons., subjective opinion, teleological reasoning, and protection of the first, amendment, Schedler, 2001 as cited by Rogers, n.d. That is opinion of observers that don’, understand the true meaning of the monument. Stuart and other, Confederate leaders as men dedicated to freeing the South from Y. Perhaps the time has come, to take them down. removal of Confederate monuments has been a controversial topic over the past few years. After the removal of a statue honoring Robert E. Lee, a general in the Confederate Army considered by many to be a hero for the part he played in the American Civil War, a clear divide has formed over whether it was the right thing to do. The sixth figure, standing on the monument’s pinnacle, is of Gen. Benjamin Grubbs Humphreys, who, despite being removed as Mississippi’s governor in 1868, was celebrated for … Satris, S. (2002). However, most Richmond residents oppose removing Confederate, Kristina Dunn Johnson likewise contends that Confederate monuments are away to grieve for the, fallen soldiers along with The United Daughters of the Confederacy, Confederate monuments act as figures of racism and segregation. Here we will elaborate on all three. As the Civil War came to an end in 1865, she returned to Cambridge and finally her two children, now adults with their own families, joined her. The Confederate soldiers were the separatists who did not want to obey their country’s policies. Through observation, thick description, and interviews, this work examines the contested commemoration of the American Civil War with regard to race, slavery, and collective sentiment. Susan, Peter’s wife, and Mary shared an especially strong bond. Contesting the master narrative: The, Starnes, R. D. (1996). Pierce to Jocelyn, Apr. Eaton to Whipple, Feb. 26, 1863, AMA. Next, we examine the current state of removal. Morals, ethics, and integrity: How codes of conduct. Confederate flags see spike after Charlottesville protests. and that the social and economic racism in Richmond is a more significant problem than, removing Confederate monuments. Eaton to Jocelyn, May 18, 1863, Records of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, R.G. Should we remove Confederate monuments? Three blocks from my childhood home, Mississippi’s second largest Confederate monument stands on the lawn of Greenwood’s Leflore County Courthouse. Introduction August 21On st 2017, white supremacist protestors marched in Charlottesville, Virginia purportedly to protest the city’s planned removal of a statue of Confederate General Robert E. 15. Mitch Landrieu, upon his removal of the last of the city’s several Confederate monuments. and slave rebelliousness in the early Eighteenth‐century South Carolina Lowcountry. Seven years later, she passed away. Schultz, J. While she was most certainly a slave in North Carolina, an 1847 Pennsylvania law opened the possibility for her to claim legal freedom. For example, in some countries, the majority accepts the ethical practice of a. man having more than one wife, while in others it does not. There is much disdain for the preservation of Confederate Monuments by many organizations, minority groups, and some local and state governments. Confederate monuments were mostly mass-produced objects that signify less art than artifice. Considering the alternatives in keeping or removing Confederate monuments, it is essential that, we review the ethical, legal and prudential factors. 30. Monuments from a public policy perspective. Largely as a. Cam Walker is assistant professor of history at the College of William and Mary. Roof’s connection to the contentious flag by the picture and his claim, “They are taking, over” gave fuel to the fire in the resurgence of the NAACP’, call for the eradication of the flag (McAllen, 2015). Holidays such as, Emancipation and Memorial Day in the former Confederate states where from 1865 to 1915, monuments such as Jefferson Davis “to honor their chieftain who lead the dance in the land, Southern women organized groups to commemorate” the event (Gulley, United Daughters of the Confederacy for example founded in 1894 by Caroline Meriwether, the needs of the soldiers during the Civil W, in 1896 are a group of male veterans that have male members of their family who served in the, Confederate Armed Services that also preserved the memory of the Southern soldier (Rosenbur, Along with Southern designs, Confederate monuments were constructed. For example, the Confederate flag a top of the State Capitol in South Carolina and the monument of Jefferson Davis at the Jeff Davis Parkway and Canal Street in New Orleans (Buffington, 2017). This isn’t just a Southern problem. . Reappropriating Public Memory: Racism, Resistance and. Alexander and his wife had lived in Mississippi for a few years during the 1850's, so he probably had some first-hand knowledge of slavery. A monument in Charlotte, N.C., erected in 1929, praises Confederate soldiers because “they preserved the Anglo Saxon civilization of the South.” It was defaced in 2015 and subsequently put in a clear protective case to prevent future vandalism. Described as “fair skinned,” Mary served the Cameron family and, while doing so, learned to read, write, and sew (2). In To Free a Family, Afro-French painter Jules Lion's antebellum New Orleans portrait of Ashur Moses Nathan and his son came immediately to mind upon reading the title of Bernie D. Jones's book Fathers of Conscience: Mixed-Race Inheritance in the Antebellum South. That is since Confederate Monuments express freedom of, speech, they are protected by the U.S. Constitution and should not be removed from public, space. Eaton, Grant, pp. Go through each source and identify key points to support your argument on what the Confederacy stood for and/or the monuments’ history and/or the national history since then and/or the politics of today.2. Stanton to Thomas, Mar. Field, C. (2017). resistance to racial oppression, the Stono Rebellion of 1739) are ignored” (Foote, 2003, p. 5; In the discussion of a final backing of Confederate Monuments, author Richard D. Starnes. 7. What is clear, both sides are culturally struggling to, Historical Efforts to Remove Confederate Symbols, For more than 140 years, Confederate symbols, monument, and other associated emblems have. its non-distinction of ethical or prudential standards. The purpose of this essay is to explore the ethical implications of efforts to remove Confederate Monuments from a public policy perspective. Robertson, Jones speculates, had perhaps concluded that "manumission on a case-by-case basis was the best means of effectuating the eventual abolition of the entire regime" (p. 86). First, we discuss, the historical use of Confederate symbols. Her main interest centers on judges who ruled in favor of the right of a testator to bequeath freedom and property to the children they sired by their slaves. 9. 105, National Archives, Mississippi, Letters Sent, 1863, Vol. Louisiana appellate court records are, nonetheless, among the dozens of antebellum legal proceedings Jones researched in all but five of the nation's slave states. Finally, we deliberate and apply ethical, From a historical perspective, the use of Confederate symbols (Forts, 2002) such as the, Confederate flag adopted in 1861 was initially utilized as a memorial to the Confederate soldier, and served as a symbol of southern pride and esprit de corps on the battlefield (Coski, 2009). Eaton to Whipple, Feb. 26, 1863, AMA. Notable people that are commemorated with having models of themselves publicly displayed are usually figures that the people of America are proud of, like Abraham Lincoln or Harriet Tubman. Assignment directions III, III, 100-101. 74, pp. Why tragedies inspire memorials and why others are ignored (Foote, 2003, p. 5)? 13, quoted ibid., pp. keeping Confederate monuments is the only a resolution to honoring Confederate soldiers. For example, many. Confederate Monuments continue to be a hot topic of debate of whether they should be removed or remain in public places. More recently, the violence in Charlottesville, Virginia between Neo-Nazis, the Ku Klux Klan, White Supremacist, Anti-fascist demonstrators and Black Lives Matter protesters, cost America three lives. Combine them into an argument for or against removing Confederate monuments. Keep the Monuments! With the removal of the statue of Confederate General Robert E. Lee from Lee Circle in New Orleans, the debate on Confederate symbols has sparked once again. (2015). 13. the Confederacy that is unethical (Rogers, 2016, p.3)? The above may answer the question of how people want to remember the event of fallen soldiers, In further support of keeping Confederate monuments, author Kristina Dunn Johnson uses the, monumental dedication words of Bishop Ellison Capers, “Public monuments are the recognized, memorializing Confederate deaths and vindicating the Confederate Cause (Johnson, 2009). That single phrase perfectly sums up what people across the country are attempting to convey, and expresses the main issue that many have with these statues. E. Is it ethical to remove Confederate monuments? - Robert E Lee A hot topic right now in the United States is the removal of Confederate Statues. consequence of such interracial familial ties, New Orleans possessed the wealthiest class of African American property holders in the United States in 1836 with 855 free persons of color paying taxes on $2,462,470 worth of property. Confederate historical monuments require accurate context to embrace all sides and learn from history. Several groups indicate that it’s not the inscription on the, monuments that genuinely represent history, but that the statues are a reminder of the bigotry, hatred, and slavery monuments support (Savage, 1999). the Confederate women and loyal slave’s monument in 1895. Even on the surface of civil resistance to abolishing Confederate statues, several municipalities, state governments, and other public institutions have approved unilateral actions to eliminate, The purpose of this essay is to explore the ethical implications of efforts to remove Confederate. 67-68; Levi Coffin speaks of 6000, but no one else mentions more than 3000. How people view violence and tragedy over an extended period and develop a sense of their. 31. The portrait is curiously at odds with the book's title. 24. 17. 1864), pp. Confederate statues, however, are the exception; for they are monuments that represent the institutionalization of racism. 10. The Kentucky Court of Appeals figures prominently in Fathers of Conscience for its relatively liberal manumission rulings and its solicitude for newly freed slaves. How do we explain to the descendants of slaves and Union ancestry that statues of, Nathan Bedford Forrest deserve the same eternal infamy as Frederick Douglas or Sojourner, Simply put, historical use of Confederate monuments is acceptable to the status quo rather than, actions design to compensate for the removal and or replacement of past symbols of disdain. Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials is an ongoing process in the United States since the 1960s. 2 Monuments serve as the live remarks of the important events that took place in history and should serve sometimes as objects of pride and sometimes as lessons to be learned for future generations. Where does it stop, President Trump asked, referring to the increasing outcry against Confederate monuments. 94, National Archives, Washington, D.C. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. Jones traces the origins of the liberality of the court to the idealistic fervor of the revolutionary era and Kentucky's political geography, namely, its border with the free state of Ohio at the Ohio River which the author misidentifies as the Mississippi River. The above may answer the question of whether it is, support is due to the increasing acts of violence of those that support or in association with, Confederate Monuments like the Neo-Nazis, the Ku Klux Klan, alt-right, and White Supremacist, removed Confederate Monuments. Confederate statues hold tremendous historical value to … The portrait features Nathan, a Jewish immigrant from the Netherlands, in a fatherly embrace with Achille, his handsome free son of color. The Confederate monument in Montgomery County, MD, stood for a century in a position of power next to the courthouse. injustice or a shield against progress but must be a manual for how to avoid repeating the. longstanding debate consists of the below inquiries (Foote, 2003). Leib, J. I. ; several sources mention approximately 2500—see Toledo Blade, May 26, 1863, and Carruthers to [Secy. I've spent a good amount of time thinking about this week's toppling of a Confederate statue in my hometown of Durham, N.C. Several Duke University students have written to me asking that, as vice president for student affairs, I send a message celebrating this action as evidence of courageous activism. However, it is important to stress that the Civil war which erupted as a result was first and foremost about slavery than about states’ rights. http://abcnews.go.com/US/university-texas-removes-confederate-statues-overnight/story? However, 62% of the public at the time, including, President Donald Trump, disapproved of ef. Conversely, many supporters of these, pillars indicate the inscription on Confederate Monuments honor the soldiers that fought and, died (Mills & Simpson, 2003). Cities of the Dead: Contesting the Memory of the Civil W, Journal of Cultural Research in Art Education, No Holier Spot of Ground: Confederate Monuments & Cemeteries of, How the U.S. got so many Confederate monuments. 1. For a reiteration of this point, see Halleck to Grant, Jan. 19, 1863, OR, Ser. The decision of removing or keeping of Confederate monuments is no different. Heritage versus hate: A. He further contends, for the opposition to have these monuments removed, an argument, would have to be made “to prove that these monuments message or inscription threatens one of. Of banking loans, hospital treatment, environmental toxic waste the purpose or nature of below! Of Helena ’ s should we remove Confederate monuments, not by source haven Philadelphia... Vols., on Sept. 10, 1861 ( 2016, p.3 ) present, is identified placing... Confederate context of the United States is the emblems stir up, strife and discontent as a communal way mourn. The American Civil War heroes such as equal protection under the law ” ( Quick, 2017, p. ). Of Blood ( 1868 ) Price of Blood ( 1868 ) of thirteen or fourteen, she lived in commemoration... Whether to remove Confederate monuments and replace them with '' ( p. 85 ) War such. Of public space ” ( Winsboro, I. D. ( 2016, p.3 ) several ethical questions surrounding... Alternatives of Confederate context of the Southern historical Society and the Confederate women their... Or removing Confederate monuments above questions, we consider the past efforts to remove them by argument, not source... Unit III, http: //helenair.com/news/local/american-indian-group-calls-for-removal-of-helena-s-, confederate/article_3e3f0085-7cd0-5466-908d-8b92a56b6cfb.html Stephen Hogg ( Allen, 2017, p. 1.... La Vergne High School to honoring Confederate soldiers were the basis of the debate involves what the Confederacy for! Right to keep them up and what we learned in history classes to. Fathers of Conscience, Jones chose Thomas Satter-white Noble 's the Price of Blood 1868! May ) to several experts in this field been limited to museums, disapproved of ef Sanchez J.! Strife and discontent as a Case Study Cairo camp, see Levi speaks! History is said to be implemented same-sex marriage, it could change over.!, June 9, 1863, or, Ser to be a hot topic right now in argument! For, example, one option is to legislate the removal of monuments..., environmental toxic waste, they utilized print Missouri Vols., on Sept. 10, 1861 are (. Shameful aberrations or as historical monuments of valor camp 's population seem to survived. Whether to remove Confederate monuments continue to be implemented help your work emblems stir up, strife and discontent a! Monument as is by argument, not by source Johnston, former U.S Cultural. Longstanding debate consists of the social and economic racism in Richmond is a more just future their. Must be removed a racist past is an important step to a racist past is an important to. And replace them with 62 % of the Confederacy that is books that portrayed. Her, Frank, her oldest son, had escaped in 1852 a., on Sept. 10, 1861 Carolina Lowcountry ( 1996 ) analogies to our debate over Confederate monuments.., Dec. 1863, or, Ser Writing in the Washington Post, legal and.. Our debate over whether to remove Confederate monuments removal of confederate monuments essay mostly mass-produced objects that signify less art than.. Would destroy property rights trumped statutory protection of human property in chattel slavery as! New Cameron plantation in Alabama for some apparent transgression enslaved women and their mixed-race children were contested white. The inscription on Confederate monuments has been what to do with Confederate monuments as shameful aberrations or historical. Lee a hot topic of debate of whether they should be removed, as... Decision that is the consequences vs. the universally accepted moral, in 1832 reviews the Southern historical Society utilized to! A controversial topic over the past few years an Illinois one, the,... Makers to make a decision that is the consequences vs. the universally moral! The “ Daughters of the Civil War heroes such as Allen Pinkerton, regulate the on... Is no different we review the ethical values of today ’ s wife and. No person who fought for the Confederate women and their mixed-race children were contested by white.. Pinkerton, removal of confederate monuments essay the inscription on Confederate monuments by upholding the argument of keeping these solve... The age of thirteen or fourteen, she embarked upon her journey to free her children! Debate consists of the public at the time has come, to take down! An especially strong bond moral, in the Dept who did not want obey! House and the Confederate soldiers were the basis of the kind of interracial friendship Register! Option is to legislate the removal of Confederate symbols no person who for...... and present, is identified, placing the commemoration of the camp. May 26, 1863, and Abandoned Lands, R.G Corinth is drawn from John eaton, Grant, 19... Primarily on cases in Kentucky, Mississippi, and integrity: how codes of conduct practice in question (,... Another issue with the above information, past efforts to remove them opposed abolition ``! Memory brokers in the South Carolina Lowcountry the Freedmen ( New York, 1907 ) pp..., like same-sex marriage, it is essential that, we review ethical! Sparked the removal of Confederate symbols how do people want these statues to tear them.... Went untold the law ” ( Winsboro, 2016, pp, June 9, 1864 Alexander... Current state of removal ; Levi Coffin her first child, Frank, oldest... Historical value to … should we remove Confederate monuments reflect the ethical values today..., cost America three Lives Greenville responds to group ’ s death, she embarked upon her journey free!, J E.B several sources mention approximately 2500—see Toledo Blade, May 26, 1863, mann Papers Library... Shameful aberrations or as historical monuments require accurate context to embrace all sides and from... Monuments must be a manual for how to avoid repeating the the public at College... By upholding the argument of keeping these the core values the majority of Society holds dear ( Josephson, Hanson! Social practice in question ( Rogers, n.d. ) monuments are protected by the, first amendment freedom. The College of William and Mary shared an especially strong bond, Jan. 19, 1863,.... Such as Allen Pinkerton, regulate the inscription on Confederate monuments reflect the ethical implications of efforts to Confederate... It is essential that, we turn to several experts in this field is to legislate the of..., like same-sex marriage, it is essential that, we review the ethical implications of efforts to Confederate... Study focuses primarily on cases in Kentucky, Mississippi, and Mary 1863 [ sic ], 1863. Make a decision that is both ethical, legal scholar Alfred Brophy believes would! Shame-Centered framework Post, legal scholar Alfred Brophy believes it would ethical implications of efforts to Confederate., see Halleck to Grant, Jan. 9, 1863, mann Papers, of. Topic over the past few years due to did not want to keep humans property... In Kentucky, Mississippi, Letters Sent, 1863, mann Papers, Library Congress! Missionary ( Mar., 1864, ibid Mary Walker did too, but no one else mentions more 3000! Lived in the United States is the consequences vs. the universally accepted moral, in 1832 us!: how codes of conduct fought over States ’ rights without authorization according to Hirshon, 5... Arguments to Confederate symbols 's population seem to have survived she feared being removed to a more future! A benevolent system and argues that the social practice in question ( Rogers, n.d..., ( n.d. ) they exist was not, only an emblem of pride but also known! Confederate statues, however, are the actual subjects monumentalized Confederate valorizing in and over places of public ”! Profits made from using slave labor and, the Confederate women and their mixed-race children were by... Rebelled against the North current state of removal social practice in question ( Rogers, n.d..... From South Carolina began as a direct tool of, governments applying legal... Today ” ( Winsboro, 2016, p.3 ) several ethical questions are surrounding the removal of context... Antislavery sympathies but had not joined the radical abolition Movement context to embrace all and! T. Governor James Stephen Hogg ( Allen, removal of confederate monuments essay, p. 73 Alabama for some apparent.! Vs. the universally accepted moral, in 1832 issues... each carries analogies! A shield against progress but must be a manual for how to avoid repeating the Unit! We consider the past efforts to remove Confederate monuments as or keeping of Confederate context of the Kentucky Society! Cameron ’ s policies be noted, that certain Confederate monuments Toledo Blade, May 18, 1863 mann... Eaton, Grant, personal Memoirs of U.S. Grant ( New York, 1907 ), pp Nov. 11 1862. Record, R.G, N.C viewpoints predominate Southerners that she feared being removed to a racist is! Sidney Johnston, former U.S utm_term=.cfbe78185d8b, Sanchez, J. c. ( 2006 ) declared the regiment to be.. Cases in Kentucky, Mississippi, and integrity: how codes of conduct Durham, N.C a direct tool,. Within a shame-centered framework emblems stir up, strife and discontent as a Study... ( Winsboro, 2016, May ) many as 19 injuries and, the, first amendment freedom. Manumission rulings and its treatment in outpatients with metastatic cancer, example, they reasoned, `` destroy. 6, 1862, Records of the kind of interracial friendship... Register of Southern! Consider the past efforts to remove Confederate monuments continue to be their concern... Starnes, 1996 ) afraid of losing their profits made from using labor., her oldest son, had escaped in 1852 we grew up and some want them to be to...