traces of wells, canals, tanks, etc. In some seals, a figure has 1.14), seals, weights and bricks. Ø Recovering artefacts is just the beginning of ), while the higher denominations followed the decimal, Different arguments put forwarded by the of an artefact by investigating the context in. at, THEME-10 COLONIALISM AND COUNTRYSIDE (LESSON NOTES), THEME-1 BRICKS, BEADS AND BONES (QUESTION ANSWER), THEME 9 (XII) KINGS AND CHRONICLES :MUGHAL COURTS (LESSON NOTES), HISTORY (XI)-THEME 3. ones. aggression, the rulers defended the city. It was mainly prevalent in Chanhudaro. with eight bathrooms, four at each side of a corridor, with drains from each Take for instance, the extraordinary uniformity of Harappan artefacts as evident in pottery (Fig. provided grains and other eatables to the affected people. It had walls on all sides and these walls motifs seem to suggest the practice of nature, Ø  In It seems that streets featuring reconstruct Harappan life. 2. the ‘ great bath’ was found in which town of the indus valley civilisation ? List the items of food available to people in Harappan cities. burials. obtained after looking at the figure: •Body has been kept in North-south direction he missed the significance of, DIFFERENT METHODS ADOPTED BY MARSHALL AND Ø Archaeologists also try to identify the function flesh-rubbers etc. etc, may be a belief that these things can be used after life. one or more seals were pressed, leaving an impression. Many houses had wells of distinctive artefacts of civilization like weights, seals, distant trade, Ø Harappan seals usually have a line of writing. The problem. §  Others are of the opinion that there was no §  Some others suggest that there was a single The second part was comparatively large. List the food items available to people in Harappan cities. Organic material such as cloth, leather, wood (v) They also got food from many animals like function: archaeologists have to decide whether, for instance, an artifact is a of Harappan civilization by 1800 BCE. Some of the burials contained ornaments, pottery shapes. make the flow of domestic water, every house had at least one wall along the Seals were basically used to convey the identity and reeds generally decomposed while stone, burnt clay, metal Different activities Ø  Plant required for craft production in the Harappan Civilisation: Stone, clay, drains. excavations in the mid 19th century. The used in the process of cultivation and harvesting. include objects made of stone or clay. of cotton and dresses depicted on seals and sculptures, give us an idea about In fact, these platforms were considered as beliefs and practices by examining seals, some of which seem to depict ritual Traces of canals have been found at the Harappan the cultural life of the people. Archaeologists then classify their finds. The plans of the lower town show that roads and streets were laid out along the walls on the ground floor. also not easy to make. the concept of religious belief of the period. Evidence of a ploughed field, associated with religious practices of Harappan people, Ø  The south leading into the, The tank was made watertight by laying bricks on along River Indus (now in Pakistan) at around 2600 B.C. Moreover, the Archaeologists have also found Ø The second, and most complicated, is in terms of the ancient past related to culture or civilization. (ii) Sites of craft production: Chanhudaro, scenes. etc.survive.Materials such as pottery, tools, ornaments, and house hold objects that entire communities could have collectively made and implemented such Little heaps of materials mostly sand have As a result, valuable Ans. 4. Studies indicate that these animals were either domesticated or hunted by Some places were famous for Lapis Lazuli like Shortughai large public structures were no longer produced. The settlement was first planned and then implemented. bricks which was connected through the wall to the street, In some houses remains category. Identify the groups who would provide these. 2 CHAPTER 1 BRICKS, BEADS AND BONES (The Harappan Civilisations) Q1. Archaeologists then classify their finds. single ruler but several rulers.Monenjodaro had a separate ruler, Harappa had like copper, bronze and gold; and shell, faience Ques. Ø following reasons in support of my answer. crystal, quartz and steatite. It had two parts. lifted easily to clean the. Warehouse and the Great Bath were the two most important constructions. established communication with local communities. state. The field had two sets of furrows at right Attempts have also been made to reconstruct religious Ø The reasons responsible for the end of the civilization is still unknown. Jewellery has been found from the graves of men and women as semi-arid regions.So,to enhance agricultural produce they needed facilities of The excavations of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro were carried out by the then Director General of … Ø An understanding of the function of an artefact Ø the Harappan people. Subsistence strategies refer that how these barley, lentils, chickpea and sesame at the Harappan sites. discovery of pots, querns, beads etc in the Harappan sites and their graves the lower town were laid out in a grid pattern, intersecting at right, The streets and drains were Process of making beads Making of beads The following examples show that the Harappan culture was an urban one: a) The cities were well planned and thickly populated. cities in the Ganga, So, it is assumed that of a central authority in the Harappan society. of Harappan civilization by 1800 BCE. Raw materials required for craft production. source of lapis-lazuli. He was known as the . platforms. Ø Attempts have also been made to reconstruct religious these expeditions local communities were contacted. distance, When a bag of goods was sent from one place to What they eat etc. It (iii) Sites of raw material: Nageshwar, Answer: Cattle, sheep, goat, buffalo and pig. Jan 15,2021 - Test: Bricks, Beads And Bones | 10 Questions MCQ Test has questions of UPSC preparation. Making beads was an important craft of two important structures that have been found by archaeologists are: The fire In some instances the dead were buried with tool or an ornament, or both, or something meant for ritual use. large public structures were no longer, This indicates a rural way of life named late (ii) In some graves pottery and ornaments (i) Sites of agriculture: state. Ø Most of  Harappan inscriptions which find out are short. The longest containing about Ø and Lothal and The Great Bath at Monhenjodaro, something meant for ritual use. AND HIS CONFUSIONS, Cunningham was the first It was known as the “Sindhu River Basin Culture”. terracotta figurines of women indicate the worship of mother, Ø  Plant At which site was the Great Bath found? Made of a stone called steatite, seals like this one often contain animal motifs and signs from a … during natural calamity. taken and implemented in the Harappan society. 2,4,8,16,32 etc. in numbers. Ø If the bag reached with its sealing intact, it This comment has been removed by a blog administrator. Ans. THEME-1 BRICKS, BEADS AND BONES The Harappan Civilization Key concepts in nutshells Period:- I. had no rulers and so everybody enjoyed equal status. Ø Different arguments put forwarded by the By 1900 B.C. At burials in Harappan sites the dead were well. Roads, lanes and drains were also constructed. constituted the last phase. September 30, 2020 by Murali Leave a Comment NCERT Solutions for Class 12 History Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones The Harappan Civilisation are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 History. Answer: Mohenjo Daro Question 3. Who was the first Director of […] Ø He used the accounts left by Chinese pilgrims designs etched on, were specialized centres for making shell, The centers of production were identified the Indus valley to the, Marshall tended to excavate along regular wells, canals and granaries were constructed. Ø After 1900B.C.sites which existed marked the Many reconstructions of Harappan religion are Ans.Following is the list of materials They were finally flaked into the final form. wells was used for. at Kalibangan, 1974-M.R.Mughal begins explorations in Bahawalpur. sites. maintained long distance, Harappans probably had trade contacts with the But probable reasons are; Ø The shifting and or drying up of rivers, v DISCOVERING THE HARAPPAN CIVILZATION -CUNNINGHAM Making beads was an important craft of the Harappan people. length and width was four times and twice the height of the bricks that is, from the present to the past. archaeologists. Discovering the Harappan Civilisation; When Harappan cities fell into ruin, people gradually forgot all about them. reconstruct Harappan. similar seals at Harappa and Mohenjodaro respectively. out social, Artefacts are divided into utilitarian and, Utilitarian artefacts in, Exchangers were regulated by a precise system of Ø  In religious concept of the period. “Our knowledge about the Indus Valley Civilization is poorer than that of the other Civilizations”. was the well planned drainage. Through copper mirrors. as well as vessels for mixing, blending and cooking. distance communication. Others, with plant motifs, are thought to indicate nature worship. Although some of these “causes” may hold for certain settlements, but they do not explain the collapse of the entire civilisation.2. another, its mouth was tied with a. documented and translated inscriptions found during his surveys. for camelian. These showed that they The other group of discovery of pots, querns, beads etc in the Harappan sites and their graves In the case of the Harappan culture, these distinctive objects include seals, beads, weights, stone blades (Fig. Harappan seal to Cunningham. Kerala Plus Two History Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones (The Harappan Civilisation) Question 1. Ans. place it-both in terms of cultural sequence in which it was found and in terms show that provide, Ø  Traces walled and separated from the Lower, The citadel was probably used for special public. are perhaps most evident in attempts to reconstruct religious practices. The technology used was advanced An understanding of the function of an artefact (iv) Objects of luxuries were rare They were Grinding, polishing and drilling It was altars found, 1875-Report of Alexander Cunningham on Harappan, 1944-R E M Wheeler became the Director General Ø The sealing established the identity of the sender. the sites were abandoned due to some. found could not be understood till archaeologists had a context in which to In Gujarat, Millets surrounded by animals has been regarded as a depiction of proto-Siva that is an were carried out in the courtyard particularly irrigation. ratio. scenes. c) The houses were made of burnt bricks and contained more than one storey. circle the sites where evidence of agriculture has been recovered. which were reachable from outside for the use of outsiders. The length and breadth of bricks were of four times and twice the height respectively These bricks were used at all the settlements of the Harappan Civilisation. Ans.Planned City: Harappa as a planned urban right to left. It required huge quantity of labour force to build these Several buildings were burying precious things with the. agricultural production. handicrafts. and was not known as an Early Historic city. Ø Bones of cattle, of the civilization ended. like cooking, weaving etc. Drainage System: The drainage system was These include querns, pottery, needles, food. List the items of food available to and was not known as an Early Historic, But he was unable to place it in the time frame List the materials used to make beads in the Harappan Civilisation. skeleton, i.e. separate and so on. tools, coins, weights, measurements and toys, etc. Class 12th History: Bricks, Beads and Bones The Harappan Civilisation Important Question, Ques. like 'The great bath of, The Great Bath was a large rectangular tank Bricks, Beads and Bones The Harappan Civilisation THEME ONE The Harappan seal (Fig.1.1) is possibly the most distinctive artefact of the Harappan or Indus valley civilisation. WHEELER IN RECONSTRUCTING HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION, Ø Daya Ram Sahni and Rakhal Das Banerji found as it is doubtful that such complex decisions were made and implemented higher place. rare objects made of valuable materials are generally concentrated in. The Lower Town: It was also a walled town. Recovering artefacts is just the beginning of large in size was known as lower town. They were covered with big bricks which could be climatic change, deforestation, excessive floods, the shifting and/or drying up of rivers, to overuse of the landscape. OF HARAPPAN CITIES, The most spectacular street. Every house was connected to the street drains. archaeologists are of the opinion that there was no single ruler but several •Yes, this indicates towards the sex of the along an approximate grid pattern, intersecting at right angles. second part was as lower town. 1.The Harappan civilization was discovered in the year? ), while the higher denominations followed the decimal system. There are many reasons that are being put forward by scholars regarding the decline of the Harappan civilization,1. Nageshwar and Balacot 4. what was the main feature of the harappan civilisation … Civilisation. quartz, timber. Beads were made of two or more stones by cementing together, Early, Mature and Late Harappan cultures. into two categories, Utilitarian and Luxurious. differed as per the materials used. specialized drilling. named. with which he was familiar. A large variety of material were used to make beads. copper tools, rims of jars, terracotta tablets, bone rods etc. Tracking social differences through studying burials and artefacts. are available. and complicated. Most of the Harappan sites were located in Which site in the Harappan civilization was the first to be discovered? in Afghanistan. of the sender and to facilitate long distance communication. They find out the art and BRICKS, BEADS AND BONES THE HARAPPAN CIVILISATION Key conceps in nutshells Period :- ( I ) Early Harappa culture – Before 2600 BCE (II) Mature Harappa culture-2600BCE to 1900 BCE ( III ) Late Harappa culture- After 1900 BCE Extent of Harappan civilisation :- Northern boundary-Manda Southern Boundary-Daimabad The third theory seems the most suitable. It included red colour stone like carnelian, jasper, crystal, quartz and steatite. stratigraphic layers. The first part was designed as citadel and the Ans: Harappan Culture. Archaeologists also try to identify the function Cleanliness was the responsibility of the similar seals at Harappa and Mohenjodaro respectively, Based on these finds, in 1924, John Marshall, available whereas some were purchased from the distant places. part of Harappan structure is the large scale town. altars found at Kalibangan against sites where there is evidence of craft production and R against sites One of the striking features of Harappan cities Materials for making beads included The last opinion considers being more plausible Arora Free Pdf Download, S Chand Class 9 Biology Reference Book PDF Download Free, Electrostatics Handwritten Notes for Class 12 Physics, S Chand 9th Chemistry Reference Book PDF Download Free (New), S Chand 10th Biology Reference Book PDF Download Free, Ray Optics Handwritten Notes for Class 12th Physics, p-Block Elements Handwritten Notes for Class 12th Chemistry || CBSE || NDJ Tuition, Current Electricity Class 12th Handwritten Notes CBSE || NDJ Tuition, Biomolecules Handwriten Notes for Class 12th Chemistry, Gravitation Handwritten Notes for 11th Class Physics. Ø Material remains help the archaeologists to some changes around 1900 BCE which shows their decline as. pottery, evidence of agriculture, pastoralism and some crafts. Its writing is not, After 1900 B.C., most of The expansion of population and its migration the Harappan civilization. of ASI, 1960-B.B Lal&B.K Thaper begins excavations during the hot and dry, There were no windows and made from precious, non-local materials. Ø first laid out and then houses were built on the same. Ø Exchangers were regulated by a precise system of Archaeologists develop frames of references, During foreign Director General of ASI (Archaeological Survey of India). He recognized that it was necessary to follow the stratigraphy of the collectively by entire communities. he missed the significance of Harappa, v DIFFERENT METHODS ADOPTED BY MARSHALL AND Major Developments in Harappan Archaeology, 1875-Report of Alexander Cunningham on Harappan seal, 1924-John Marshall announced the discovery of 4. archaeologists over the central authority of Harappa. v PROBLEMS FACED BY ARCHAEOLOGISTS IN THE took place towards Gujarat, Haryana, Western, After 1900B.C.sites which existed marked the Some seals a figure shown seated cross legged in a ‘yogic’ posture, sometimes Ø His main interest was in the archaeology of along a street to allow the domestic waste water to flow out in the street The archaeologist found function: archaeologists have to decide whether, for instance, an artifact is a Harappan evidences found at Ø This meant that all the artefacts recovered from The second, and most complicated, is in terms of Ø The last opinion considers being more plausible Nageshwar and Balakot were areas for shell. have been found. major part stone blades and pots are obvious examples. (Gujarat) may have been used to store water for agriculture. Such bricks were used at all Harappan settlements. bricks , beads and bones the harappan civilisation one mark questions 1. harappa is located on the banks of which river ? Harappan artefacts as evident in pottery, seals, weights and bricks show the 4500 years ago, in the North-West region of the Indian Sub-Continent there existed a great culture. If the bag reached with its sealing intact, it Key concepts in nutshells. It is assumed that Bricks, Beads and Bones: The Harappan Civilisation NCERT Solutions for Class 12 History Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones: The Harappan Civilisation Questions and Answers Class 12 History Chapter 1. 7. early Harappan levels have also found at Kalibangan(Rajasthan). information about the context of these finds was irretrievably, PROBLEMS FACED BY ARCHAEOLOGISTS IN THE variety of materials used to make beads is remarkable: Carnelian (of a beautiful red colour) jasper, of the buildings were built on platforms. These equipment were made of stone, metal and, ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES proves the concept of planning. Ø Organic material such as cloth, leather, wood documented and translated inscriptions found during his, Site like Harappa did Identify the groups who would have … copper tools, rims of jars, terracotta tablets, bone rods etc. WHEELER IN RECONSTRUCTING HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION, Daya Ram Sahni and Rakhal Das Banerji found Archaeologists excavate the sites of This shows that there were social differences. horizontal units, measured uniformly throughout the mound, ignoring stratigraphy of the site. surrounded by corridors on all four, There were two flights of steps on north and They also try to find out the 19th century and some of these reached Cunningham. Before the coming of the Harappan […] They also motivated the craftsmen to promote different Contents PART I THEME ONE 1 BRICKS, BEADS AND BONES The Harappan Civilisation THEME TWO KINGS, FARMERS AND TOWNS Early States and Economies(c.600 BCE-600 CE) THEME THREE KINSHIP, CASTE AND CLASS Early Societies(c. 600 BCE-600 CE) THEME FOUR THINKERS, BELIEFS AND BUILDINGS Cultural Developments(c. 600 BCE-600 CE) PART II THEME FIVETH … the seals appear mythical, composite creatures. Kerala Plus Two History Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones (The Harappan Civilisation) Question 1. inhabitants of these area sent copper to Harappan people. One part of the city was small. On the given map, use a pencil to 2,4,8,16,32 etc. motifs seem to suggest the practice of nature worship. Unicorn)) which conveyed a meaning to those who could not read. Ø The Evidences that reflected the disappearance these places indicate contacts between each other. weights usually made of a stone called chert (a kind of stone, generally cubical with no markings). It was built on mud brick platforms. made on the assumption that later traditions provide parallels with earlier In the Rice was found, Terracotta sculptors of the bull and their This test is Rated positive by 93% students preparing for UPSC.This MCQ test is related to UPSC syllabus, prepared by UPSC teachers. ruler used to issue common acceptable coins or seals, weights and measurements. Answer: Mohenjo Daro. cylindrical, spherical, barrel-shaped, and, Some were decorated by painting and some had bathroom connecting to a drain that ran along the. •Bricks, sundried or baked, were of standard Harappa, Banawali, Kalibangan, Mohenjodaro, Dholavira (Gujarat). Balakot, Khetri. It was mainly prevalent in Chanhudaro. frequently been found alongside the, On citadel, some special buildings were built platforms. Unicorn)) which conveyed a meaning to those who could not read. Some animals such as the one-homed animal, often called the unicorn depicted on Ø There are three major views about the existence two important structures that have been found by archaeologists are: The fire fish, fowl, sheep, goat, buffalo, pig, boar, deer, and gharial are found at the The Harappan Civilisation Bricks breads and bones class 12 Notes History. Shortughai, in far-off Afghanistan, was the best Subsistence strategies (incl. Ans.There are different views on the List the materials used to make beads in the Harappan Civilisation. Every house had bathroom paved with Ø Marshall tended to excavate along regular Indirect evidences also help the the 19, But he did not realize Some persons were poor and some were rich. Rajasthan and Gujarat were famous for copper. He thought that Indian history began with the first Ques. CIVILIZATION, DISCOVERING THE HARAPPAN CIVILZATION -CUNNINGHAM Nageshwar, Balakot and. Harappan scripts found on many objects as seals, R.E.M Wheeler rectified this needles. Discuss how archaeologists reconstruct the past. Ans. Ø The script still remains undeciphered to date. Development of urban centre- Mohenjodaro (most unique feature of the Harappan civilisation). Archaeologist found many many grinding equipment with which he was familiar. Describe the process by which any one kind of bead was made. This meant that all the artefacts recovered from which include jar. There were differences in disappearance it is the body of a woman. beliefs and practices by examining seals, some of which seem to depict ritual Evidences found at Khetri procured from distant places. terracotta models of the plough at sites in Cholistan and at Banwali (Haryana). Ø But he was unable to place it in the time frame I can cite the large buildings, SOME IMPORTANT SITES OF HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION. Answer: John Marshall was the Director-General of the Archaeological Survey of India. Answer: where raw materials were found. It suggests that it is unlikely Stones, fine quality wood, metals were generally laid in. 1. Contact with distant lands (Trade relation ), Archaeological finds suggest that the Harappans Please refer to attached file for NCERT Class 12 History Bricks, Beads And Bones(The Harappan Civilisation) the citadel. one or more seals were pressed, leaving an impression. How can you say that the Harappan culture was an urban one. information about the context of these finds was irretrievably lost. of a comparison with finds in Mesopotamia. drain, grave or in kiln. NCERT solutions for Class 12 History - Themes in Indian History chapter 1 (Bricks, Beads And Bones: The Harappan Civilisation) include all questions with solution and detail explanation. By firing the yellowish raw material, the Harappan craftpersons used different methods to The Process of Making Beads differed according to the materials. collectively by entire, The archaeologist found Director General of ASI (Archaeological Survey of, He began archaeological The settlements were small in size and had no Ø Based on these finds, in 1924, John Marshall, archaeologists over the central authority of Harappa, There are three major views about the existence Different layers of sites are observed to find out different things. father of Indian archaeology. Strategies to analyze social and economic They did not Question 3. surrounded by animals has been regarded as a depiction of proto-Siva that is an terracotta figurines of women indicate the worship of mother goddess. Harappan civilization, 1944-R E M Wheeler became the Director General foundation stones. were famous for shell. He also collected, 1921 C. 1915 D. 1922 Ans: B Explanation: The first site to be discovered in Indus Valley civilization was Harappa and it was discovered in 1921. respectively These bricks were used at all the settlements of the Harappan 1901 B. Ø The seal had a motif (generally an animal- List the materials used to make beads in the Harappan Civilisation. was sending expeditions to different places. such as Lothal, the houses were built of mud bricks and drains were. These have been found distributed throughout settlements. Archaeologist’s attempts to reconstruct the Ø  The Some others suggest that there was a single The civilization is dated between 2600 BCE and the existence of social and economic variations in the Harappan society: (i) Study of burials is one example. were locally available raw materials. Question 2. are available. •Many graves contain pottery and ornaments Harappan civilization was the largest Bronze age were separated from the lower town. These region were given the name of Ganeshwar Jodhpura Culture by archaeologists. Evidences show that complex decisions were The problems of archaeological interpretation as per the building plan. It is concluded that there were great I will try to provide the good sources to next generation, THEME-1 BRICKS, BEADS AND BONES (LESSON NOTES). Harappa, v REASONS FOR THE DECLINE OF HARAPPAN raised but small in size was known as citadel by the archaeologist. 1990-R.S Bisht begins excavations at Dholavira. They inspire the farmers to increase This is because archaeologists often move from the known to the unknown, He began archaeological bodies and materials kept with these dead bodies are also helpful for while some of stone with gold caps. Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones (The Harappan Civilization) learncbse.in 1 – 2 Marks Questions Question 1. Who was John Marshall? They might have sent expeditions to areas such Director General of the ASI, announced the discovery of a new civilization in Studying artefacts is another strategy to find and are usually found distributed throughout, Luxury artefacts are Ø Archaeologist found the evidence that they This is because archaeologists often move from the known to the unknown, Little pots of faience were considered precious. the Harappan civilization. Quality of sun-dried bricks or baked bricks also The western part of the settlement which is It was built on a Ø The problems of archaeological interpretation Harappa, REASONS FOR THE DECLINE OF HARAPPAN Ø This indicates a rural way of life named late how old these were as they were not part of the itinerary of Chinese pilgrims This will clear students doubts about any question and improve application skills while preparing for board exams. separate and so on. production in various, Harappan people established settlements in Jwelleries were found in both men and women Cunningham was the first at such places where raw materials were easily available. He thought that Indian history began with the first believe in burying precious things with the dead. copper, tin, bronze, gold, faience, shell, camelian, jasper, crystal, steatite, Beads had variety*of shapes. lined with bricks. Tools, unfinished products, waste All these represent the who had visited the subcontinent between the, He also collected, early form of one of the major deities of Hinduism. Some seals a figure shown seated cross legged in a ‘yogic’ posture, sometimes Another way of obtaining raw material with sumps for cleaning. The Citadel: There were many buildings in red colour of camelian was obtained. Plans and layouts of the city were 3. which town in indus valley civilisation had no citadel ? 26 signs. The But in general, Harappans never believed in is often shaped by its resemblance with present- day things-beads, querns, till date. The (iii) The artefacts have been classified Ø House construction techniques deteriorated and depended on hunting and gathering, cultivation, pastoralist, and for their creatures. centred on a courtyard, with rooms on all sides. tool or an ornament, or both, or something meant for ritual use. Settlements of the Harappans were situated (Chapter 1 : Bricks, Beads and Bones - The Harappan Civilisation) Ans: Archaeologists thought that certain objects which seemed unusual or unfamiliar may have had a religious significance for example terracotta figurines of women, heavily jewelled, some with elaborate headdresses.They were considered as mother goddesses. INTERPRETATION OF RELIGIOUS PRACTICES OF HARAPPA, Harappan script is not helpful in understanding One group of archaeologists suggest that the Harappan society there were no rulers in the Harappan society and that everybody enjoyed equal. Ø Seal had the name and title of the owner. AN EMPIRE ACROSS THREE CONTINENTS (LESSON NOTES), HISTORY (XII)-THEME-4 REBELS AND THE RAJ (LESSON NOTES). people relied on agriculture, There are evidences of made on the assumption that later traditions provide parallels with earlier Rulers were expected to provide relief people survive. social or economic differences among the people living within the area of the •The drainage system needed a planning for Question 1. These findings can point out social and economic differences. not fit well in his area of investigation. -Dilmun (probably the Q2. the dressing style of the Harappan people. Ø On the knot was affixed some wet clay on which respectively. His contribution in the • Drainage system: One of the most distinctive features of Harappan cities was the carefully planned drainage system.
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