A week or so later, on June 2, 1968, the new president of the Consilium, Cardinal Benno Gut, sent a cover letter to the presidents of episcopal conferences17 along with guidelines to assist catechesis on the anaphoras of the Mass.18. A third reason for the changes can be found in the secular and theological Zeitgeist — the spirit of the times — of the late sixties. But how much longer can this state of affairs continue? This was assigned to Study Group 10. We would soon realize just how serious are the liturgical and pastoral problems arising from the text. Most of these texts became parts of anaphorae still in use. Holy, Holy (The “Sanctus”, based on the praise of the seraphim in Isa 6:3): All: Holy, holy, holy Lord, God of power and … 4) Should the episcopal conferences be able to compose new Eucharistic Prayers that satisfy criteria set down by the Holy See and are then submitted to the latter? One could recommend that priests read and study in this area, but practically speaking, most priests have little time for extra study. 2. The Dutch bishops chose eleven Eucharistic Prayers out of the many in circulation and published them for official use (November 11, 1969). that the Congregation for Divine Worship should prepare models of its own), 4) Is the solution proposed in n. 29b acceptable? 31 Es ist nicht nur der ökumenische Zug unserer Zeit, der sich der Denkweise orientalischer Theologie anzunähern bestrebt ist, sondern darüber hinaus — man muss nur Vagagginis Darstellung liturgischer Grundbegriffe vor Augen haben — auch ein gutes Stück persönlicher Theologie des Verfassers.” Josef Jungmann, “Um die Reform des römischen Kanons: eine kritische Stellungnahme zu C. Vagagginis Entwürfen“, Liturgisches Jahrbuch 17 (1967) 11. 5. After having studied how we got from one Eucharistic Prayer to many, and after offering some reasons as to why things happened the way they did, it is now time to pose the question: how should we respond to the situation? Since I rely heavily on Bugnini’s account of this period and quote him frequently, all citations of his work will henceforth appear in the body of the text. (This norm, in effect, reduces the use of the Roman canon to a few special occasions). Bugnini, p.466 for a list of these concessions.  All the new Eucharistic Prayers follow the Antiochene structure with the noticeable difference that the Epiclesis is placed, according to the uses of the Roman tradition, before the Words of Institution and not after. It was often posited that as long as the Roman canon was said in the original Latin, no one was very much aware of its flaws — the presupposition being that the average priest’s knowledge of Latin was not sufficient to discern such things. R. We lift them up to the Lord. Bugnini describes the situation for us: The Roman Canon was the most sensitive and complex problem of all. 17 “La publication“, Notitiae 4 (1968) 146-148; DOL #243, pp.612-613. If taken at face value, this decision would leave the Roman canon primacy of place, while adding several other Eucharistic prayers to the repertoire in a subsidiary role. For the official texts, cf. Eucharistic Prayers: after the Sanctus (“Holy, Holy, Holy”), when the people kneel, we have the praying of the Eucharistic Prayer. My proposal is not radical. Eucharistic Prayer B – The Great Thanksgiving. In addition, modern houses have their own merits and conveniences. In The Celebration of the Eucharist, Enrico Mazza offers a thorough account of the theology of the Eucharist and presents a historical analysis of the origin and variety of eucharistic … In the secular order, this time period was marked by a massive and sometimes anarchic rejection of structure and authority. Bugnini, pp. J. Jungmann, “Um die Reform des römischen Kanons: eine kritische Stellungnahme zu C. Vagagginis Entwürfen“, Liturgisches Jahrbuch 17 (1967) 1-17. Eucharistic Prayer III is also used quite often, especially on Sundays and feast days. On November 17, 1972, the Secretary of State sent the draft Instruction to the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. The relator responded saying that these concerns were already reflected in the phrase “due care being taken to preserve the substance of the rites” (probe servata eorum substantia), although in fact, the post-conciliar commission would abandon this position. The Flemish-speaking bishops of Belgium did the same, but limited the selection to five (November 1, 1969). In the process of the work, the question of the Roman canon inevitably arose. It was decided to act upon Pope Paul’s instructions by adopting two already-existing anaphoras, that of Hippolytus (the inspiration for Eucharistic Prayer II) and the Alexandrian anaphora of St. Each part of an old building has its own history, and old rambling houses like this are truly wonderful: but they are not neat. Alternative prayers were proposed, therefore, for the sake of variety. The genie had been let out of the bottle, and would simply not go back in. In some languages, the Anaphora is not distinguished from the Eucharistic Prayer, namely: Eucharistic Prayer in Western Christianity, Anglican Communion and Western Rite Orthodoxy. Basil himself, and recent scholars believes that this text, united with the anaphora described in The Catechisms of St. Cyril of Jerusalem, has been the base for the Anaphora of St. James included in the Liturgy of St James. According to this spirit (which is legion), the supreme criterion is brevity. The Eucharistic Prayer itself was not originally a concern of the Consilium, but rather the revision of the Ordo Missae. If only a few priest so far are aware of these issues, it is because many have had their awareness blunted by routine and a more or less mechanical recitation (even if in a general spirit of devotion) of a text in a dead language. In Eucharistic Prayer I, or the Roman Canon, the prayer Te igitur (We come to you, Father) is said by the principal celebrant alone, with hands extended. The Dutch prayers were translated into German8 (1968) and went through many printings (cf. While all of these private initiatives were taking place, what was happening at the official level? While it is true that a certain amount of variety helps to retain the interest of the listener, too much variety can be destructive of one of the basic norms of any ritual action: its repeatability. (Note the pattern: unauthorized experimentation first, pressure for permission later). The rest of the anaphora consists of a lengthy set of intercessions for the Church, its bishops and other clergy, the leaders of nations, the faithful departed, and the Church as a whole, as well as commemorations of the Saints, especially the Blessed Virgin Mary, John the Baptist, the saint being commemorated that day, and "Forefathers, Fathers, Patriarchs, Prophets, Apostles, Preachers, Evangelists, Martyrs, Confessors, Ascetics, and for every righteous spirit in faith made perfect." messages and emissaries between the Netherlands and Rome in order to resolve the problem. The Antiochene Maronite Church is one of the richest in the number of anaphorae contained in its Liturgy, most of them belong to the tradition of the Antiochene rites. When this Eucharistic Prayer is used in Masses for the Dead, the following may be said: † remember your servant N. whom you have called (today) from this … (Bugnini, p.449). He had an audience with Pope Paul on December 21, 1972, in which he explained the position of Divine Worship: the Church was faced “with a widespread phenomenon which, it seems, cannot be handled by simply prohibiting it or by ignoring it, but only by channeling it so that the Holy See can still be in control.” The Pope then stated his decision: “No to any further experiments. The Ambrosian Rite during the centuries has lost its ancient variety, even if it maintains a richness of choices for the Preface and its first Eucharistic Prayer is slightly different form the Roman one mainly in the Words of Institution. Noting that during its first 1600 years, the Roman rite knew only one Eucharistic Prayer, Father Cassian observes that the multiplication of “options” since the early to mid-1970s has resulted in the virtual disappearance of the Roman Canon. 30 “Au cours des derniers mois,” Notitiae 4 (1968) 148-155; DOL #244, pp.614-619. The liturgical anarchy that ensued left traces which are still in evidence today. The Eucharist: Origins Voice of the Faithful® Page 3 of 12 to the participants. These directives were rather restrictive, insisting that proper procedure be followed, and stressing that “only the four anaphoras contained in the Missal are to be regarded as official and definitive” (Bugnini, p.483). Basil (which in the end was not accepted because of certain theological difficulties). According to Archbishop Annibale Bugnini, longtime secretary of the Congregation for Divine Worship, “This kind of variety seems needed if the Roman liturgy is to have the greater spiritual and pastoral riches that cannot find full expression in a single type of text” (Bugnini, The Reform of the Liturgy, p.452). Cf. Bishop Duschak proposed this idea first outside the Council hall in a press conference on November 5, 1962. It may be used whenever a Mass does not have a proper preface; its use is particularly suited to a congregation of people with a more developed knowledge of Scripture. Of the three new texts which were eventually approved, one is very short (EP II), one of medium length (EP III) and one is rather long since it includes a summary exposition of the entire economy of salvation EP IV). It is the shortest of all four Eucharistic Prayers … and "Drink ye all of this; this is my blood of the New Testament, which is shed for you and for many for the forgiveness of sins." 6. Bugnini, p.465). The present Roman canon sins in a number of ways against those requirements of good liturgical composition and sound liturgical sense that were emphasized by the Second Vatican Council. (This norm, in effect, limits the use of this Eucharistic Prayer to rare occasions: it cannot be used during any of the strong seasons when there is a proper preface, i.e. Because of these differences, it is essential that eucharistic liturgy be studied from ahistorical perspective. We cannot follow the path to a foreign liturgy without carefully examining and fostering our own inheritance. On the contrary the Western Church had for centuries only one anaphora, the Roman Canon, but it has variable parts according to the liturgical year, mainly the Preface. Bugnini, p.482, n.50. Their rationale: 1. Some of the consultors of the Congregation, who had not been polled on these questions, but who felt very strongly about them, published their own findings, coming to quite opposite conclusions, namely that it was inopportune to compose new Eucharistic Prayers in addition to the ones already in the Roman Missal. The liturgical reformers objected to the architectural untidiness of the Roman Canon and wanted to replace it with something more streamlined and functional. Not willing to wait for the word from Rome, however, many individuals and groups simply went ahead on their own. 3) Is it enough that the Holy See should provide some models to be adapted by the episcopal conferences? 28 Anton Hänggi – Irmgard Pahl, Prex Eucharistica: Textus e Variis Liturgiis Antiquioribus Selecti, Fribourg: Éditions Universitaires, 21968. 3. In the explanations given for these new texts, a certain emphasis was placed upon their length. Whether speaking of structure or of theology, the main argument seems to be that the Roman canon is untidy. The structural defects show themselves in the disorderliness of the Canon, according to Vagaggini. The congregation and choir respond: "Amen. 220. A second reason for the change from one Eucharistic Prayer to many was dissatisfaction, on the part of some liturgical scholars, with the Roman canon. As an Italian liturgical scholar puts it: “its use today is so minimal as to be statistically irrelevant”.1. With introduction in 1969 of the Mass of Paul VI, it was allowed to have multiple choices of Eucharistic Prayer, however the authorization of new Eucharistic Prayers is reserved to the Holy See. Eucharistic Prayer IV, however, should always be used with the preface printed above.) To describe the structure of the Anaphoras as it became standardized from the 4th century, we can look at the structure of the anaphoras in the Antiochene family of liturgies (West Syriac Rite and Byzantine Rite) :6 which display an order and logic that finds no equal elsewhere. Decorative trim is added “just because”. Many ancient texts of anaphorae have survived, and even if no more in use, they are useful to trace the history of the anaphorae, and in general the history of the Eucharist during the centuries. The Canon is unsatisfactory from a stylistic viewpoint.”, Despite pressure from advocates of alternative prayers, Pope Paul VI objected to changing the Canon. b. * The Holy See does not unqualifiedly exclude the possibility of approving a new anaphora, but its preparation and promulgation must be agreed on in advance with the Holy See. Several meetings made it clear that it would be difficult to obtain approval for these; the Consilium therefore suggested that the Dutch wait for the new Eucharistic Prayers then being composed (Bugnini, p.461, n.7).6. Phone: (608) 521-0385 With this green light from the Holy Father, the Consilium set to work immediately. The Consilium, therefore returned to the subject of the Eucharistic Prayer a couple of months later, presenting a new request to Paul VI on May 25, 1966: If the time comes to reopen the question of composing a new Eucharistic Prayer (in view of the difficulties that mark the present Roman Canon from a pastoral standpoint), study group 10 would be honored to be allowed to work up some models. On May 27, 1971, Divine Worship explained the problem to Pope Paul VI, suggesting that the issue needed to be more carefully studied: “We hear that the Liturgical Institute of Paris has collected and studied over two hundred Eucharistic Prayers… If the Holy Father agrees, the Congregation would like to undertake a systematic collection of all the existing material and study it…so that it may have a clear grasp of the dimensions of the problem and be able to tackle it with greater clarity and on a solid basis” (Bugnini, p.467). He gathers not only the bread and the wine, but the … DOL #248, pp.623-629. 467-469): 1) Should the number of Eucharistic Prayers in the Roman Missal be increased? Born in Lynn, Massachusetts in 1955, Fr. 449-450). Thus, we can also view the Eucharistic Prayer … Brazil also received permission for a new anaphora on November 11, 1974 for its National Eucharistic Congress. Problems after official promulgation of the new Eucharistic Prayers, One might have expected that the official publication of the new Missal with three new Eucharistic Prayers in addition to the Roman Canon would have put an end to unbridled experimentation. If this applies to homes, it applies all the more to public buildings, which in this century have achieved new heights of ugliness. The Eastern Rites know many anaphoras, but each of them is almost completely invariable. 5) Are the guidelines set down in Chapter VI for preparing and evaluating Eucharistic Prayers acceptable? Bugnini reports that the Secretary of State, Cardinal Cicognani, wrote to the president of the Consilium, Cardinal Lercaro, on October 25, 1965 and again on December 10, 1965, urging extreme caution (Bugnini, p.152, n.30). By formalism I mean the desire to observe the prescribed rituals, but to get them done as quickly as possible so as to move on to more important things. 3) Is the solution proposed in n. 39a of the schema acceptable? Since the door remained partly ajar, people made bold to knock. The Eucharistic Prayer is itself the highest point of the Mass because it is through the Eucharistic Prayer that the words of consecration are prayed over the bread and wine – it is here that Christ becomes truly and substantially present for us. 2. The first Eucharistic Prayer, the Roman canon, which had been used exclusively in the Roman rite for well over a millennium and a half, nowadays is used almost never. 3… It is interesting to single out the motives for the proposed change: 1) The Roman Canon would be burdensome if recited out loud, because it is always the same. One feature that eventually became a part of all the early Eucharistic prayers was the Sanctus hymn, based on Isaiah 6:3 … Bishop Sullivan’s question … 1) Eucharistic Prayer I, i.e. 4 – 6 : September – November 1996 (Originally published in three parts, but reproduced in full here). Thus a special study group was appointed on September 17, 1971 to look into the matter. I would like to argue that there is a connection between this dissatisfaction and 20th-century architectural functionalism. A personal anecdote can illustrate the point nicely. People And also with you. c. July 10, 1967: In view of the forthcoming Synod of Bishops, Pope Paul VI wrote to the Consilium with these instructions: “You are authorized to prepare a booklet [containing the new anaphoras] that is to be given to the Fathers of the coming Synod; all things considered, however, it is advisable that the formula of consecration not be changed.”13. The Roman Canon should always have the place of honor and be used on Sundays and more solemn feasts. In western Christian traditions which have a comparable rite, the Anaphora is more often called the Eucharistic Prayer for the four modern anaphoras in the Latin liturgy, with the first anaphora having the additional name of the Roman Canon. 19 Cf. On the one hand, respect for this prayer made the group hesitate to touch it; on the other, there were suggestions from experts and requests from pastors for a different and more logical organization of the Eucharistic Prayer. Bugnini reports that “the group held its fourth and final meeting on September 25-26, in a somewhat “disheartened” atmosphere” (Bugnini, p.473). Pope Paul VI, on February 28, 1972, in an audience with Bugnini (whom he had ordained a bishop on February 13, 1972) also issued a kind of rebuke: “I once again strongly urge the Congregation for Divine Worship to try to control the tendency to multiply Eucharistic Prayers,” adding a number of clarifications: * Other Congregations competent in the matter were to be consulted in these matters (translation: Divine Worship shouldn’t be acting on its own); * Liturgical uniformity should be stressed; * Episcopal conferences do not have the authority to introduce new Eucharistic Prayers unless they have received permission from the Holy See (Bugnini, pp. The Armenian Rite, used mainly by the Armenian Apostolic Church, uses currently the Anaphora of St. Athanasius. The clear consensus of the group was that more Eucharistic Prayers should be allowed. The Eucharistic Prayer 2. 21 “Eucharistiae participationem“, Notitiae 9 (1973) 192-201; cf. Sometime, particularly in the past, in both East and West the main celebrant said a part of his prayers inaudibly or covered by the choir. Nevertheless, what happened is something verifiable and concrete.  The "notion of a sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving", dating back to Irenaeus, is emphasized in the United Methodist Church's "anamnesis and offering: 'And so in remembrance of these your mighty acts in Jesus Christ, we offer ourselves as a holy and living sacrifice, in union with Christ's offering for us, as we proclaim the mystery of faith: Christ has died...'" The Methodist Rite, as with the Presbyterian liturgy, places the Memorial Acclamation "after the anamnesis and offering". 25 Decree of the Congregation for Divine Worship approving new Eucharistic Prayers for Masses with Children and Reconciliation, November 1, 1974: “Postquam de Precibus“, Notitiae 11 (1975) 4-6; DOL, #249, pp.629-630. 4) Eucharistic Prayer IV has an unchangeable preface…. This illuminating account will be presented in three parts. These comments of mine are now addressed specifically to priests. I really did not believe it. ", The anaphoras currently used by the Syro-Antiochene Rite (or West Syriac Rite) are numerous and the main are:.  Most parts of the anaphora, as the Preface, the Institution narrative, the Epiclesis, are always reserved to the celebrant, a bishop or a priest, while the faithfuls usually sung the Sanctus and some acclamations, which can be more or less frequent and length according to the specific rite. At the third meeting, January 25-26, 1972, the group, comprised of 17 members, voted on four questions (cf. The point is that, even in terms of the Eucharistic Prayers, priests (and people) tend to choose sameness over variety. Annibale Bugnini, the chairman of the Consilium, reports what happened: As a result of Father Bugnini’s visit to the Netherlands, a special committee was set up to examine some anaphoras sent by the [Dutch] liturgical commission. scholars think this is the way that the Sanctus entered the tradition of eucharistic prayers. When the Council optimistically opened the windows of the Church to the world, this was the wind that blew in. The most notable example of this advancement in liturgical studies is the edition by Anton Hänggi and Irmgard Pahl of Prex Eucharistica, an anthology of anaphoras and anaphora-type prayers from the Jewish liturgy, the New Testament, ancient texts of the early patristic period, oriental anaphoras of the various eastern liturgical families and western anaphoras of both the Roman and non-Roman western rites. On January 11, 1973, the Secretary of State communicated CDF’s response to Divine Worship: “The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith has given a negative answer regarding the timeliness of granting the episcopal conferences permission to redact new anaphoras. Father Vagaggini, a Benedictine monk and professor at the Pontifical Athenaeum of Sant’Anselmo in Rome, spent the summer of 1966 at the library of Mont-César in Belgium, doing an intense study of the Roman canon, and composing two new Eucharistic Prayers (which are the basis for the present prayers III and IV). Liturgy of the eighth book of the Apostolic Constitutions, "General Instruction of the Roman Missal, par 79", From One Eucharistic Prayer to Many: How it Happened and Why, "General Instruction of the Roman Missal, par 365", Texts of all the current Catholic Eucharistic Prayers, Historical Evolution of Ethiopian Anaphoras, Explanation of the Maronite Divine Liturgy and its Traditions, Communion and the developmentally disabled, Historical roots of Catholic Eucharistic theology, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Anaphora_(liturgy)&oldid=1001621924, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Eucharistic Prayer n. 1: it is the ancient, Eucharistic Prayer n. 2: it is based on the ancient. Hence when the Eucharistic Prayer began to be said aloud in the vernacular, with four to choose from — and the Roman canon chosen rarely, if ever — the average layman did not realize that 1600 years of tradition had suddenly vanished like a lost civilization, leaving few traces behind, and those of interest only to archaeologists and tourists. 484-485). 3 2. Who Prays the Eucharistic Prayer? 13 The Consilium was not satisfied with the Pope’s response, but explained the reasons for the proposed changes and asked that “at least the new Eucharistic Prayers have the text that it had approved.” Permission was granted on October 12, 1967. Each eucharistic prayer has its own internal logic, its own way of unfolding the sacrifice and paschal mystery.
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