OCLC: 23602275. The number of Harappan related artefacts is much more in west and central Asia and the Gulf than vice versa. Cotton : The discovery of a terracotta sealing with the impression of wove fabric from Lothal the actual cotton cloth piece sticking to the base of a silver vase from Mohenjodaro a number of accessories of cotton weavers found at Lothal and other Indus cities and the seal impression with the cotton cloth from Umma indicate that cotton may have been one of the major items on the list of export items. Etched carnelian beads have also been reported from Abu Salabikh and Tell Brak (a site in northeast Syria but very much within the north Mesopotamian orbit). After packing the goods properly, the consigner’s seals were affixed on the labels of wet clay at the knot. It gives us a clear idea that the ”traders, Akkadian, Iranian, Indian … behaved in much the same way as merchants do the world over today”. Harappans in Sumer and Akkad (Babylonia): Harappan trade with Babylonia seems to have been established on a significant scale by Akkadian times. Thus, beyond the Indus Valley, we have now a cluster of seven sites at Shoturgi, near Ai – Khanum, northern Afghanistan on the Oxus – Kokcha confluence. Shahdad, Tepe Yahya, Jalalbad, Kalleh Nisar and Susa all lie on the east to the west southern route of Iran. In Afghanistan, the most important related discovery is shortughai, approachable from the south side of the Hindukush by … This shows that there were other elements of cross – cultural interactions between Mesopotamia on the one hand and the Harappan area on the other. Its location is so strategic that it must have controlled the import of lapis lazuli, turquoise, silver and other minerals and metals from Afghanistan and Soviet Central Asia and northern Iran required for the highly industrialized economic pursuits of the Harappans. The important evidence from Altyn Tepe consists of a square soapstone / alasbaster seal with two Harappan pictographs, a tall perforated cylindrical jar, and etched carnelian bead and possibly segmented faience beads. A Persian Gulf seal found at Lothal may, however, indicate the presence of a Persian Gulf agent at Lothal who could transact business on behalf of the Persian Gulf merchants. To the Kassite levels of about the 14th century BC, with a strong focus on the Sargonid context of c. 2325 BC or a little earlier. They were also familiar with the routes in north and south Iran. A few cylinder seals showing motifs of the Harappan Civilization occur at Kalibangan, Rakhigarhi and Mohenjodaro. The Royal Graves of Ur have also yielded Harappan long barrel – cylinder carnelian and etched carnelian beads. The two earliest calibrated dates from the site of Dashly 3, which shows trefoil designs and humped bulls as decorations on alabaster plates and kidney – shaped vases of steatite as evidence of its Harappan contacts, fall before the mid – third millennium BC, but a number of dates from the same site show the continuity of the site till the middle of the second millennium BC. • Harappans conducted both internal and external trade, through both land and sea. However, the valley of twin rivers could evolve a magnificent civilization mainly because of its nearness to the hilly regions of Iran and Anotolia which were very rich in mineral resources and its ability to mobilize them. The seals found in Mesopotamia were certainly used by the Indus merchants or their agents as identification marks on the goods they collected in the local markets and then sent to Indus ports. Search . Trading of different goods helps the Indus Civilization expand its culture, and trade with faraway lands. There are four indisputably Harappan seals : two from Kish and one each from Lagash and Nippur. More Harappan pottery and beads have been claimed to have been discovered in Oman but the publication details are seldom clear. Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer. During the Harappa period, we visualize that the wealthy merchants were arranging the raw material from neighbouring regions, and organizing the industry roughly on the ‘factory system’ (Lothal and Chanhundaro are known for their bead factories) i.e., employing several craftsmen under a single roof. The unit looking after the availability of raw materials, and Kalleh Nisar in the Luristan region between the Fars plain and southwest Iran yielded an unspecified number of etched carnelian beads. Harappan Trade. A seal with the whorl motif has been found in the context about 14th century BC, at Bet dwaraka. The sequence of characters tally with those found on Indus seals in India. The ships containing smaller items may have travelled only as far as Magan or Dilmun, that is at ports between Sutkagendor and Bahrein or failaka islands. To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser. The External Trade of the Indus Civilization. Here also we see the same factor : the prevalence of the agency system. Trade in the Harappan Civilization The network of trade, both internal (within the country) and external (foreign), was an essential feature of the Harappans ‘ urban economy. It was absolutely essential because the trade was based on barter system and exchange items were to be negotiated on the basis of the requirements of the home market. He, therefore, visualizes a situation in which the Mesopotamia and Indus merchants met and exchanged their goods in the central place marke:s, and avoided going to each others’ country personally. 2. The king Rimush of third millennium B.C. All this reminds us of the situation in which Indian place – names find their way in Indian colonies of Africa and south – east Asia. After coming back to the production centre, they could have shipped the consignments directly from some Harappan port with the help of the ship – captain and the crew after packing the goods carefully with full identification – the name of the consigner, and also the trade mark. Harappan and Harappan – related objects, mostly beads and seals, come from both south and north Iraq. In the 1920s, archaeologists began to excavate the sites of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. It is called Harappan because the remnants of the civilization was discovered first at the modern site of Harappa located in the province of Punjab, Pakistan. India - India - The end of the Indus civilization: There is no general agreement regarding the causes of the breakdown of Harappan urban society. Amazon US . At the present state of our knowledge we are unable to visualize if these people were sharing the profit of trade or not. There are four indisputably Harappan seals : two from Kish and one each from Lagash and Nippur. A typical Harappan seal with the impression of cloth on its back was, according to the dealer who sold it, from Umma. Overseas trade to be economical has necessarily to follow the system of exchange – in – full. Some of the entrepots may have also worked as ‘clearing houses’ for small consignments for places in the neighbouring regions, such as those on the eastern coast of Arabia, say in Abu Dhabi. The Mesopotamian texts present ample evidence not only for imports but also exports, although none of the known texts appears to have given the exhaustive list of these items. Secondly, the Mesopotamian term Meluhha means perhaps the general area to the east of Mesopotamia and not necessarily the Harappan area alone. The seals found at the hinterland sites also seem to have belonged to merchants and not to political authorities. Shahr -i – Sokhta at its eastern end in Iranian Seistan has shown fragments of a Xancus pyrum shell, which possibly came from the Gujarat coast. There is also a report of a cylinder seal with Harappan inscription from Iranian Seistan. Ras al – Qala (round seals with Harappan pictographs and Harappan weights in the Akkadian level), Hajjar (a pearshaped seal with Harappan characters) and Hamad (a typical Harappan seal) are there in Bahrain. Borang pemilihan pimpinan, etika dosen, etika mahasiswa, DESIGN OF HEAT SINK FOR THE COOLING OF A CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT SUBMITTED BY SERRANO. Undoubtedly, Harappan agents stationed themselves at places like Lagash for generations together, so much so that in Ur III times, some 300 years after the Sargon of Addad, their village was called ‘Meluhha’ and some of their personal names included ‘Meluhha’. The recovery of sixty – five terracotta sealings, some of them bearing the impressions of packing material on the other side, from the warehouse of Lothal leaves no doubt in accepting the suggestion that the Indus seals were the commercial tools used for sealing the cargo. The Harappan and Harappan – related objects occur in Bahrain, Failaka, Sharjah and the Oman peninsula in the Gulf area. Shahdad is at the edge of the south Iranian desert Dasht -i – Lut, and it yielded a large number of etched carnelian beads. Square Seals : at Tello, Umma and Kish a small group of square steatite seals have been found which are identical in shape and character to the Indus seals. The external trade of the Harappan Civilization comprises the Harappan and Harappan related objects found in Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Iran, Mesopotamia and the Gulf region. The painting of boat on Harappan pottery indicated that river navigation was used by people. Obviously, Harappans had specific economic interests in several regions peripheral to their culture – area. May be there were a few temporary stations on the coast but we have no knowledge about them as yet. In the Indus civilization there is a well-knight external and internal trade. Still, it may be noted that texts are the only real basis for the history of this trade. PIE and Vedic studies: Multi-layered cipher of Meluhha speech and attested presence of Meluhha speakers in Ancient Near East. A glazed steatite cylinder seal, showing the procession of an elephant, a rhinoceros and a crocodile, has been discovered at Tell Asmar in the cluster of Indian objects. Tepe has yielded Harappan seal. To us, it appears that it belongs to some ship – captain working at both the ends for merchants, possibly as an authorized agent. In recent years, our knowledge about the extent of the Harappa cultural has increased considerably which has a direct bearing on the long distance Harappan trade as well as the highland – lowland interaction for economic needs. Cuneiform records of the 3rd millennium B.C. During the Harappan period, in all probability, on the Sumerian analogy agents of the manufactures were looking after the first sub – unit of the major unit ‘Distribution’. Along with these finds, one has to consider the occurrence of steatite/chlorite vessel fragments bearing hut motif at Mohenjodaro and Dholavira. As said earlier, Akkadian documents refer to the lands called Dilmun, Magan and Meluhha, sometimes separately, sometimes together. The second theory is of During Caspers who promotes the idea of direct contacts by giving a number of evidences, particularly, the evidence of etched carnelian beads, stone seals and a number of small antiquities. Like the Indus Valley proper, Mesopotamia was mainly a land of agriculture and cattle and sheep breeding, which is clear from the list of exports: cloth, garments, wool, leather and perfumed oil : these were mainly the products of agricultural and pastoral activities. The crew were to carry goods from one port to the other. The traders of this Civilization had contact with the foreign lands for the goods, which were not available locally. Analyze the internal and external trade pattern of Harappa civilization. The first is that of Lamberg – Karlovsky, who observes that the evidences for import and export are very fragmentary. The Meluhha trade was first metioned by Sargon of Akkad (2370 B.C.) To begin with, in the context of Indus – Mesopotamian economic interaction, we visualize a multi – tired structure as against simple two – tired structure of pre – urban societies. However, facts may be noted : Indus Valley Civilisation MCQ Questions and answers with easy explanations. It has been admirably discussed by Crawford (1973) in which she draws our attention to the Mesopotamian’s invisible exports in the third millennium B.C. They had uncovered the remains of two long-forgotten cities and found the Indus Valley civilisation. More Harappan pottery and beads have been claimed to have been discovered in Oman but the publication details are seldom clear. Three cylinder seals in Mesopotamia – two from Ur and one from Tell Asmar – show Harappan influence in the form of humped bull / elephant / rhinoceros. They were situated eastward and were the source of raw – materials and also finished goods. History section provides you all type of mcq questions on Indus Valley Civilisation with explanations. The foregoing account is a short summary of the actual Harappan artefacts found in the Gulf, Afghanistan, Iran, and north and south Mesopotamia. Kalleh Nisar in the Luristan region between the Fars plain and southwest Iran yielded an unspecified number of etched carnelian beads. Dr. Jonathan Mark Kenoyer delivers the 23rd Gulestan and Rustom Billimoria Endowment Lecture at the Asiatic Society of Mumbai, Dec. 14, 2020. In addition to an etched carnelian bead found on the surface, Tepe Yahya, located to the southeast of Kirman, yielded a sherd having directly above its base a Harappan pictographs, an etched carnelian bead and a ‘terracotta type’ object with a square sealing in the middle. There is also a report of a cylinder seal with Harappan inscription from Iranian Seistan. The north Iranian route which passes through the southern side of the Elburz range has Hissar and Shah Tepe on it, but Marlik is located to the north of the Elburz. 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