, After the expiration of the entrenched constitutional conditions mandated by the Lancaster House Agreement in the early 1990s, Zimbabwe outlined several ambitious new plans for land reform. << /Font << , Land hunger was at the centre of the Rhodesian Bush War, and was addressed at Lancaster House, which sought to concede equitable redistribution to the landless without damaging the white farmers' vital contribution to Zimbabwe's economy. /FontFamily (Times New Roman)  President Mugabe responded by indicating that in his opinion land reform was a strictly political issue, not one to be questioned or debated by the judiciary. In fact, many developing countries in Africa are trying to build and transform their cities into modern cities. /FontBBox [ -628 -376 2000 1018 ] Jurisdiction ‘Land’ is a State subject under the Constitution=> different States have evolved differently in the field of land management. endobj The truth however is much more complex. /ExtGState << /Cs6 60 0 R /FontDescriptor 39 0 R 39 0 obj >> Land reform is a system whereby statutory division of agricultural land and its reallocation to landless people takes place. Julius Nyerere was said to have told Mugabe in 1980 that Zimbabwe was a jewel. endobj /Subtype /TrueType Later, Zimbabwe began its severe hyperinflation in 2004 and the entire economy declined. , Between 1890 and 1896, the BSAC granted an area encompassing 16 million acres—about one sixth the area of Southern Rhodesia—to European immigrants. endobj  Those who remained on tracts in the TTLs found themselves having to cope with topsoil depletion due to overuse; large amounts of topsoil were stripped of their vegetation cover and rendered unproductive as a consequence. Moreover, Mnangagwa’s focus on land reform is the right approach with regards to its agricultural sector. /XHeight 1000 /FontStretch /Normal >> The Commercial Farmers Union freely offered to sell the government 15,000 square kilometres for redistribution, but landowners once again dragged their feet.  Many former supporters of the nationalist movements felt that the promises of Nkomo and Mugabe with regards to the land had not been truly fulfilled. The land would be sold in the meantime, and the government obliged to evict the preexisting occupants. /ExtGState << It empowered the government to claim tracts adjacent to the former TTLs (now known simply as "Communal Areas") and mark them for resettlement purposes, provided the owners could be persuaded to sell. endobj  This was enshrined in Section 16 of the Zimbabwean Constitution, 1980.  A campaign of systematic villagisation followed as the Rhodesian Army shifted segments of the black population into guarded settlements to prevent their subversion by the insurgents. It is hoped that one of the positive effects of the indigenisation laws is to enable government to effectively regulate the direction of bank credit. endstream /BaseFont /ArialMT  This reflected a larger trend of permanent European settlement in the milder, drier regions of Southern Africa as opposed to the tropical and sub-tropical climates further north. There is however much overlap between the two categories. /LastChar 148 /TT2 65 0 R 0 444 278 722 500 500 0 0 389 389 278 500 0 667 ] >> 42 0 obj Notwithstanding the Lancaster House commitments, Short stated that her government was only prepared to support a programme of land reform that was part of a poverty eradication strategy. , The diversion of farms for personal use by Zimbabwe's political elite began to emerge as a crucial issue during the mid 1990s. In September 1998, the government called a donors conference in Harare on LRRP II to inform the donor community and involve them in the program: Forty-eight countries and international organisations attended and unanimously endorsed the land program, saying it was essential for poverty reduction, political stability and economic growth. ZANU leader Robert Mugabe and ZAPU leader Joshua Nkomo insisted on the redistribution of land—by compulsory seizure, without compensation—as a precondition to a negotiated peace settlement. /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /Cs6 60 0 R 60 0 obj endobj The opposition mostly boycotted the drafting stage of the constitution claiming that this new version was to entrench Mugabe politically. >>  In 2019 the Commercial Farmers Union stated that white farmers who had land expropriated under the fast track program had agreed to accept an interim compensation offer by the Zimbabwean government of RTGS$53 million (US$17 million) as part of the government effort to compensate dispossessed farmers. , Most Shona cultures had a theoretically communal attitude towards land ownership; the later European concept of officiating individual property ownership was unheard of.  At independence from the United Kingdom in 1980, the Zimbabwean authorities were empowered to initiate the necessary reforms; as long as land was bought and sold on a willing basis, the British government would finance half the cost. << , Land reform caused a collapse in Zimbabwe's tobacco crop, its main agricultural export.  Reduction of funding posed another dilemma: property prices were now beyond what the Ministry of Lands, Resettlement, and Redevelopment could afford to meet its goals. endobj 45 0 obj /FontBBox [ -558 -307 2000 1026 ] /SM 0.02 1996. 62 0 obj  Violent confrontations between the farmers and the war veterans occurred and resulted in exchanges of gunfire, as well as a state of armed siege on the affected farms. African homestead in Rhodesia. >> /FontName /TimesNewRomanPS-ItalicMT  Both these peoples later came to form the nucleus of the Shona civilisation, along with the Zezuru in central Zimbabwe, the Korekore in the north, the Manyika in the east, the Ndau in the southeast, and the Kalanga in the southwest. /Nums [ 0 42 0 R ] /CapHeight 1000 /TT2 65 0 R A mere reference to land reforms in Zimbabwe raised eyebrows. >> This was often done violently and without compensation.  This was reflective of prevailing attitudes in their guerrilla armies, the Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army (ZANLA) and Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army (ZIPRA) respectively, and rural support bases, which had high expectations of the redistribution of land. Effects of Structural Adjustment in Southern Africa By J.T. /TT8 71 0 R With no security of tenure on the farms, banks have been reluctant to extend loans to the new farmers, many of whom do not have much experience in commercial farming, nor assets to provide alternative collateral for any borrowed money. Annual production of maize, the main everyday food for Zimbabweans, was reduced by 31% during 2002 to 2012, while annual small grains production was up 163% during the same period. /XHeight 1000  Zimbabwe was only able to acquire 3 million hectares (7.41 million acres) for black resettlement, well short of its intended target of 8 million hectares (19.77 million acres). In 2001, Zimbabwe was the world's sixth-largest producer of tobacco, behind only China, Brazil, India, the United States and Indonesia. << /Creator (PScript5.dll Version 5.2.2) >> /TT4 67 0 R /TT10 63 0 R endobj /Type /FontDescriptor Ultimately a deal was struck that the new government would not embark on any land reforms in the first decade in power. /TT6 69 0 R /FontWeight 400 Land reforms include the change of laws in a country, reforms such as these may be upheld by a government or other leading groups. 64 0 obj /BaseFont /TimesNewRomanPSMT (�+����D�̪ -4�w��8�$}�=�VP��Ρ��T��A"���0�7�4�Fc� /FontFamily (Times New Roman) /FirstChar 32 endobj >> Because the primary beneficiaries of the land reform were members of the Government and their families, despite the fact that most had no experience in running a farm, the drop in total farm output has been tremendous and has even produced starvation and famine, according to aid agencies. >> an overall negative impact of land reform on agricultural productivity in their study on India (although some state-specific effects suggested heterogeneity in the impact of land reform across states). /L 138 40 0 obj endobj : 45] On 26–27 February 2000, the pro-Mugabe Zimbabwe National Liberation War Veterans Association (ZNLWVA) organised several people (including but not limited to war veterans; many of them were their children and grandchildren) to march on white-owned farmlands, initially with drums, song and dance. 69 0 obj Ghatak and Roy (2007), on the other hand, found an overall negative impact of land reform on agricultural productivity in their study on India, although some state-specific effects suggest heterogeneity in the impact of land reform across states. She said that the UK did not accept that Britain had a special responsibility to meet the costs of land purchase in Zimbabwe. Land reform in Zimbabwe has been hobbled, attacked, demonised and villified – and it still continues on. /FontFamily (Arial) JOHANNESBURG, 3 October (IRIN) - Zimbabwe's fast-track land reform programme has ignored the critical role played by the commercial farming sector in the economy, analysts and farmers have warned. /I 154 , On 10 June 2004, a spokesperson for the British embassy, Sophie Honey, said:, The Minister for Lands, Land Reform and Resettlement, John Nkomo, had declared five days earlier that all land, from crop fields to wildlife conservancies, would soon become state property. , The Southern Rhodesian Land Apportionment Act reserved 49 million acres for white ownership and left 17.7 million acres of land unassigned to either the white preserve or the TTLs. >> The speedy conclusion of the land reform exercise is necessary politically, economicallyand socially. null /Subtype /TrueType /Count 9 As erosion increased, the ability of the subsistence sector to feed its adherents diminished greatly. /FontWeight 700 :189, In 2005, the contract system was introduced into Zimbabwe. The party needs to institute mechanisms to solve the numerous problems emanating from the way the land reform programme was conducted, especially taking cognisance the corrupt and vindictive practices by officers in the Ministry of Lands. endobj 33 0 obj  The settlers of the Pioneer Column were granted tracts of 3,150 acres apiece, with an option to purchase more land from the BSAC's holdings at relatively low prices (up to fifteen times cheaper than comparable land on the market in South Africa). In 2000, however, a Fast-Track Land Reform Programme (FTLRP) was initiated, resulting in the resettlement of most commercial land. Such positive change to revenue of farmer has been brought about by freedom of choice available to farmers and increase in competition brought about as a side effect of land reforms. null endobj § Speeding up the identification for … Crops for export such as tobacco, coffee and tea have suffered the most under the land reform. /FontBBox [ -568 -307 2000 1007 ] /LastChar 119 Growth in the sector has seen an increase in small and large scale mining operations. The draft was discussed widely by the public in formal meetings and amended to include restrictions on presidential powers, limits to the presidential term of office, and an age limit of 70 for presidential candidates. endobj endobj /FontWeight 700 land reform is not always successful in terms of poverty reduction. Land reform in Zimbabwe officially began in 1980 with the signing of the Lancaster House Agreement, as an anti-racist effort to more equitably distribute land between black subsistence farmers and white Zimbabweans of European ancestry, who had traditionally enjoyed superior political and economic status. /Cs6 60 0 R /FontStretch /Normal /TT8 71 0 R Her government's position was spelt out in a letter to Zimbabwe's Agriculture Minister, Kumbirai Kangai:, The letter concluded by stating that a programme of rapid land acquisition would be impossible to support, citing concern about the damage which this might do to Zimbabwe's agricultural output and its prospects of attracting investment. Book Review of The Land Question in Zimbabwe - Sam Moyo, Development in Practice, Vol. Kadenge Published by SAPES Books, 2000 ISBN1-77905-099-2.  It was also unable to build sufficient roads, clinics, and schools for the large number of people it was resettling in new areas. ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: Zimbabwe 1894-1969: Effects of the Land Apportionment Act. Jurisdiction ‘Land’ is a State subject under the Constitution=> different States have evolved differently in the field of land management. The 36 0 obj  To control the rate of erosion, colonial authorities introduced voluntary destocking initiatives for livestock. Most of the country was c omm ercial or communal <<  However, the High Court refused to register the Tribunal's judgment and ultimately, Zimbabwe withdrew from the Tribunal in August 2009..  In 2019, Zimbabwe produced 258 million kg of tobacco, the second-largest crop on record.  Nevertheless, male household heads frequently reserved personal tracts for their own cultivation, and allocated smaller tracts to each of their wives. , Critics of the land reforms have contended that they have had a serious detrimental effect on the Zimbabwean economy.  There has been a significant[clarification needed] drop in total farm output which has led to instances of starvation and famine. Land Reform Programme strategy. Land reform in Korea is The economy faces crisis hyper-inflation, foreign currency and commodity shortages and h�b```f``�f`a`����ˀ �L@Q�����Ig�)'f�30�Z}�A Zimbabwe began paying compensation to white farmers who lost their farms and the government is actively seeking more participants. 29 0 obj /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /Flags 34 /StemV 116.867 During the first and second phases of the land reform programme government pursued a narrowly defined land reform programme which focused solely on the In his Ph.D. thesis Traditions of Domesticity in ‘’Modern” Zimbabwe Politics; Race Gender and Class in the Government of Commercial Farm Workers in Hurunawe District. For example, the character of some suburbs would change in an unexpected ways that they would dislike, perhaps inducing them to move. /TT2 65 0 R Let me start there… Beginning in 2000, the government of the late Zimbabwean dictator Robert Mugabe abandoned its “right of first-refusal” land acquisition policy. null  About 5% of the households (not the same as 5% of the land) went to absentee farmers well connected to ZANU-PF. stream Mining and agriculture are the key economic activities in Zimbabwe. >> This paper assesses the potential consequences of a land-reform … Zimbabwe’s land reform has had a bad press. , command agriculture program. /Ascent 905 2�Tr7���Q�ǜ)+9�q�,�~������*�
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