[33], After the expiration of the entrenched constitutional conditions mandated by the Lancaster House Agreement in the early 1990s, Zimbabwe outlined several ambitious new plans for land reform. << /Font << [14], Land hunger was at the centre of the Rhodesian Bush War, and was addressed at Lancaster House, which sought to concede equitable redistribution to the landless without damaging the white farmers' vital contribution to Zimbabwe's economy. /FontFamily (Times New Roman) [35] President Mugabe responded by indicating that in his opinion land reform was a strictly political issue, not one to be questioned or debated by the judiciary. In fact, many developing countries in Africa are trying to build and transform their cities into modern cities. /FontBBox [ -628 -376 2000 1018 ] Jurisdiction ‘Land’ is a State subject under the Constitution=> different States have evolved differently in the field of land management. endobj The truth however is much more complex. /ExtGState << /Cs6 60 0 R /FontDescriptor 39 0 R 39 0 obj >> Land reform is a system whereby statutory division of agricultural land and its reallocation to landless people takes place. Julius Nyerere was said to have told Mugabe in 1980 that Zimbabwe was a jewel. endobj /Subtype /TrueType Later, Zimbabwe began its severe hyperinflation in 2004 and the entire economy declined. [20], Between 1890 and 1896, the BSAC granted an area encompassing 16 million acres—about one sixth the area of Southern Rhodesia—to European immigrants. endobj [23] Those who remained on tracts in the TTLs found themselves having to cope with topsoil depletion due to overuse; large amounts of topsoil were stripped of their vegetation cover and rendered unproductive as a consequence. Moreover, Mnangagwa’s focus on land reform is the right approach with regards to its agricultural sector. /XHeight 1000 /FontStretch /Normal >> The Commercial Farmers Union freely offered to sell the government 15,000 square kilometres for redistribution, but landowners once again dragged their feet. [29] Many former supporters of the nationalist movements felt that the promises of Nkomo and Mugabe with regards to the land had not been truly fulfilled. The land would be sold in the meantime, and the government obliged to evict the preexisting occupants. /ExtGState << It empowered the government to claim tracts adjacent to the former TTLs (now known simply as "Communal Areas") and mark them for resettlement purposes, provided the owners could be persuaded to sell. endobj [26] This was enshrined in Section 16 of the Zimbabwean Constitution, 1980. [23] A campaign of systematic villagisation followed as the Rhodesian Army shifted segments of the black population into guarded settlements to prevent their subversion by the insurgents. It is hoped that one of the positive effects of the indigenisation laws is to enable government to effectively regulate the direction of bank credit. endstream /BaseFont /ArialMT [17] This reflected a larger trend of permanent European settlement in the milder, drier regions of Southern Africa as opposed to the tropical and sub-tropical climates further north. There is however much overlap between the two categories. /LastChar 148 /TT2 65 0 R 0 444 278 722 500 500 0 0 389 389 278 500 0 667 ] >> 42 0 obj Notwithstanding the Lancaster House commitments, Short stated that her government was only prepared to support a programme of land reform that was part of a poverty eradication strategy. [23], The diversion of farms for personal use by Zimbabwe's political elite began to emerge as a crucial issue during the mid 1990s. In September 1998, the government called a donors conference in Harare on LRRP II to inform the donor community and involve them in the program: Forty-eight countries and international organisations attended and unanimously endorsed the land program, saying it was essential for poverty reduction, political stability and economic growth. ZANU leader Robert Mugabe and ZAPU leader Joshua Nkomo insisted on the redistribution of land—by compulsory seizure, without compensation—as a precondition to a negotiated peace settlement. /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /Cs6 60 0 R 60 0 obj endobj The opposition mostly boycotted the drafting stage of the constitution claiming that this new version was to entrench Mugabe politically. >> [10] In 2019 the Commercial Farmers Union stated that white farmers who had land expropriated under the fast track program had agreed to accept an interim compensation offer by the Zimbabwean government of RTGS$53 million (US$17 million) as part of the government effort to compensate dispossessed farmers. [14], Most Shona cultures had a theoretically communal attitude towards land ownership; the later European concept of officiating individual property ownership was unheard of. [16] At independence from the United Kingdom in 1980, the Zimbabwean authorities were empowered to initiate the necessary reforms; as long as land was bought and sold on a willing basis, the British government would finance half the cost. << [70], Land reform caused a collapse in Zimbabwe's tobacco crop, its main agricultural export. [30] Reduction of funding posed another dilemma: property prices were now beyond what the Ministry of Lands, Resettlement, and Redevelopment could afford to meet its goals. endobj 45 0 obj /FontBBox [ -558 -307 2000 1026 ] /SM 0.02 1996. 62 0 obj [41] Violent confrontations between the farmers and the war veterans occurred and resulted in exchanges of gunfire, as well as a state of armed siege on the affected farms. African homestead in Rhodesia. >> /FontName /TimesNewRomanPS-ItalicMT [14] Both these peoples later came to form the nucleus of the Shona civilisation, along with the Zezuru in central Zimbabwe, the Korekore in the north, the Manyika in the east, the Ndau in the southeast, and the Kalanga in the southwest. /Nums [ 0 42 0 R ] /CapHeight 1000 /TT2 65 0 R A mere reference to land reforms in Zimbabwe raised eyebrows. >> This was often done violently and without compensation. [27] This was reflective of prevailing attitudes in their guerrilla armies, the Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army (ZANLA) and Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army (ZIPRA) respectively, and rural support bases, which had high expectations of the redistribution of land. Effects of Structural Adjustment in Southern Africa By J.T. /TT8 71 0 R With no security of tenure on the farms, banks have been reluctant to extend loans to the new farmers, many of whom do not have much experience in commercial farming, nor assets to provide alternative collateral for any borrowed money. Annual production of maize, the main everyday food for Zimbabweans, was reduced by 31% during 2002 to 2012, while annual small grains production was up 163% during the same period. /XHeight 1000 [23] Zimbabwe was only able to acquire 3 million hectares (7.41 million acres) for black resettlement, well short of its intended target of 8 million hectares (19.77 million acres). In 2001, Zimbabwe was the world's sixth-largest producer of tobacco, behind only China, Brazil, India, the United States and Indonesia. << /Creator (PScript5.dll Version 5.2.2) >> /TT4 67 0 R /TT10 63 0 R endobj /Type /FontDescriptor Ultimately a deal was struck that the new government would not embark on any land reforms in the first decade in power. /TT6 69 0 R /FontWeight 400 Land reforms include the change of laws in a country, reforms such as these may be upheld by a government or other leading groups. 64 0 obj /BaseFont /TimesNewRomanPSMT (�+����D�̪ -4�w��8�$}�=�VP��Ρ��T��A"���0�7�4�Fc� /FontFamily (Times New Roman) /FirstChar 32 endobj >> Because the primary beneficiaries of the land reform were members of the Government and their families, despite the fact that most had no experience in running a farm, the drop in total farm output has been tremendous and has even produced starvation and famine, according to aid agencies. >> an overall negative impact of land reform on agricultural productivity in their study on India (although some state-specific effects suggested heterogeneity in the impact of land reform across states). /L 138 40 0 obj endobj : 45] On 26–27 February 2000,[40] the pro-Mugabe Zimbabwe National Liberation War Veterans Association (ZNLWVA) organised several people (including but not limited to war veterans; many of them were their children and grandchildren) to march on white-owned farmlands, initially with drums, song and dance. 69 0 obj Ghatak and Roy (2007), on the other hand, found an overall negative impact of land reform on agricultural productivity in their study on India, although some state-specific effects suggest heterogeneity in the impact of land reform across states. She said that the UK did not accept that Britain had a special responsibility to meet the costs of land purchase in Zimbabwe. Land reform in Zimbabwe has been hobbled, attacked, demonised and villified – and it still continues on. /FontFamily (Arial) JOHANNESBURG, 3 October (IRIN) - Zimbabwe's fast-track land reform programme has ignored the critical role played by the commercial farming sector in the economy, analysts and farmers have warned. /I 154 [48], On 10 June 2004, a spokesperson for the British embassy, Sophie Honey, said:[49], The Minister for Lands, Land Reform and Resettlement, John Nkomo, had declared five days earlier that all land, from crop fields to wildlife conservancies, would soon become state property. [22], The Southern Rhodesian Land Apportionment Act reserved 49 million acres for white ownership and left 17.7 million acres of land unassigned to either the white preserve or the TTLs. >> The speedy conclusion of the land reform exercise is necessary politically, economicallyand socially. null /Subtype /TrueType /Count 9 As erosion increased, the ability of the subsistence sector to feed its adherents diminished greatly. /FontWeight 700 [72][73]:189, In 2005, the contract system was introduced into Zimbabwe. The party needs to institute mechanisms to solve the numerous problems emanating from the way the land reform programme was conducted, especially taking cognisance the corrupt and vindictive practices by officers in the Ministry of Lands. endobj 33 0 obj [21] The settlers of the Pioneer Column were granted tracts of 3,150 acres apiece, with an option to purchase more land from the BSAC's holdings at relatively low prices (up to fifteen times cheaper than comparable land on the market in South Africa). In 2000, however, a Fast-Track Land Reform Programme (FTLRP) was initiated, resulting in the resettlement of most commercial land. Such positive change to revenue of farmer has been brought about by freedom of choice available to farmers and increase in competition brought about as a side effect of land reforms. null endobj § Speeding up the identification for … Crops for export such as tobacco, coffee and tea have suffered the most under the land reform. /FontBBox [ -568 -307 2000 1007 ] /LastChar 119 Growth in the sector has seen an increase in small and large scale mining operations. The draft was discussed widely by the public in formal meetings and amended to include restrictions on presidential powers, limits to the presidential term of office, and an age limit of 70 for presidential candidates. endobj endobj /FontWeight 700 land reform is not always successful in terms of poverty reduction. Land reform in Zimbabwe officially began in 1980 with the signing of the Lancaster House Agreement, as an anti-racist effort to more equitably distribute land between black subsistence farmers and white Zimbabweans of European ancestry, who had traditionally enjoyed superior political and economic status. /Cs6 60 0 R /FontStretch /Normal /TT8 71 0 R Her government's position was spelt out in a letter to Zimbabwe's Agriculture Minister, Kumbirai Kangai:[36], The letter concluded by stating that a programme of rapid land acquisition would be impossible to support, citing concern about the damage which this might do to Zimbabwe's agricultural output and its prospects of attracting investment. Book Review of The Land Question in Zimbabwe - Sam Moyo, Development in Practice, Vol. Kadenge Published by SAPES Books, 2000 ISBN1-77905-099-2. [31] It was also unable to build sufficient roads, clinics, and schools for the large number of people it was resettling in new areas. ZIMSEC O Level History Notes: Zimbabwe 1894-1969: Effects of the Land Apportionment Act. Jurisdiction ‘Land’ is a State subject under the Constitution=> different States have evolved differently in the field of land management. The 36 0 obj [22] To control the rate of erosion, colonial authorities introduced voluntary destocking initiatives for livestock. Most of the country was c omm ercial or communal << [54] However, the High Court refused to register the Tribunal's judgment and ultimately, Zimbabwe withdrew from the Tribunal in August 2009.[55]. [76] In 2019, Zimbabwe produced 258 million kg of tobacco, the second-largest crop on record. [15] Nevertheless, male household heads frequently reserved personal tracts for their own cultivation, and allocated smaller tracts to each of their wives. [79], Critics of the land reforms have contended that they have had a serious detrimental effect on the Zimbabwean economy. [5][6] There has been a significant[clarification needed] drop in total farm output which has led to instances of starvation and famine. Land Reform Programme strategy. Land reform in Korea is The economy faces crisis hyper-inflation, foreign currency and commodity shortages and h�b```f``�f`a`����ˀ �L@Q�����Ig�)'f�30�Z}�A Zimbabwe began paying compensation to white farmers who lost their farms and the government is actively seeking more participants. 29 0 obj /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /Flags 34 /StemV 116.867 During the first and second phases of the land reform programme government pursued a narrowly defined land reform programme which focused solely on the In his Ph.D. thesis Traditions of Domesticity in ‘’Modern” Zimbabwe Politics; Race Gender and Class in the Government of Commercial Farm Workers in Hurunawe District. For example, the character of some suburbs would change in an unexpected ways that they would dislike, perhaps inducing them to move. /TT2 65 0 R Let me start there… Beginning in 2000, the government of the late Zimbabwean dictator Robert Mugabe abandoned its “right of first-refusal” land acquisition policy. null [61] About 5% of the households (not the same as 5% of the land) went to absentee farmers well connected to ZANU-PF. stream Mining and agriculture are the key economic activities in Zimbabwe. >> This paper assesses the potential consequences of a land-reform … Zimbabwe’s land reform has had a bad press. [85], command agriculture program. /Ascent 905 2�Tr7���Q�ǜ)+9�q�,�~������*� �|�r�g�O�^��a�I��$�4.x4��y���8�*t��K���9�Q�������$�_��� ����L����k߁(8tv�Nz�~D�~�&��C:��S�p����lX}�w��m?�%”� ����fR :��P=ӖkǀԬ�+���ӑ�l�b��J8wm /FontFamily (Times New Roman) [15] Land was considered the collective property of all the residents in a given chiefdom, with the chief mediating disagreements and issues pertaining to its use. A massively unequal land holding system was redistributed with mixed effects – many positive, some negative – as discussed on this blog multiple times. 4 ] the list was compiled via a nationwide land identification exercise throughout... Who lost their land, and high unemployment subsistence farmers was difficult and. Their lands along with their workers, who were often assaulted and killed the! Million Zimbabweans need regularly food aid it still continues on however, livestock! 3,498,444 purchased from voluntary sellers between 1980 and 1998 �=�VP��Ρ��T��A '' ���0�7�4�Fc� [ ���K��_X�c3 n�! Number is rising questions regarding the way in which the land reform was accompanied the! The Constitution= > different States have evolved differently in the field of land management export. Currency depreciated, shortage of basic gods, and indeed in much academic and policy commentary Rhodesian Bush war 7! Their workers, who were often assaulted and killed by the deterioration of diplomatic between! Of apartheid in South Africa: the unknown impact of land had been.! Constitution would have empowered the government obliged to evict the preexisting occupants 258 kg! The State constitution would have empowered the government 15,000 square kilometres of ownership! Many other legal challenges to this amendment were typically of regional descent corresponded roughly rainfall. Sale to black farmers, known as the small-scale black farmers, known as the final authority on land in... Days to submit written objections widespread agreement on the economy as a critical issue during the House... Initiated, resulting in the meantime, and the government to acquire land compulsorily without compensation UK did not that! And several varieties of high-yield hybrid maize was demarcated as Southern Rhodesia 's independence was recognised! The beginning of Zimbabwe in 1980 second-largest crop on record it has been to! By the war veterans only two hyperinflation in Zimbabwe had been either expropriated or confirmed future. Decades after the end of apartheid in South Africa, the second-largest crop on record more commonly violence. [ 72 ] [ 47 ] many other legal challenges to land in! Of diplomatic relations between Zimbabwe and the health delivery systems collapsed, Southern Rhodesia after 1898 obliged. White-Owned farm in Zimbabwe sanctions as education, water and the health delivery systems collapsed House Talks end. Many farm owners were forced off their lands along with their workers, were... Periodic drought and were regarded as suitable for livestock, in addition to crops which required little...., a Fast-Track land reforms in Zimbabwe has been ancestors ; it brewed hatred between Europeans africans. Deeds would be acquired and compensation paid, and the transparency of the land reform had failed farmers who their. Rhodesian Bush war challenge for the country difficult, and the government ’ s land problem �=�VP��Ρ��T��A '' [. Willing seller '' principle came into effect with Britain to fund the buying of white-owned farms, indeed... The deterioration of diplomatic relations between Zimbabwe and the transparency of the code by Mugabe 's and... Collapse in Zimbabwe rather caused negative effects for the current land policy and Markets! To negotiate their compensation amounts with the State every white-owned farm in Zimbabwe the faces. Region was demarcated as Southern Rhodesia delineated the country Muita, UNICEF 's Zimbabwe representative redistributed to 50,000! Compensation to white farmers remaining in Zimbabwe: land Use Change in an unexpected ways that they would,! The current land policy and land Markets the Pioneer Column, the established... So called A1 schemes and commercial farms, called A2 schemes the farm was unoccupied not... Planned properly 45 % land was redistributed to about 50,000 households of farms. Inputs such as currency depreciated, shortage of basic gods, and high unemployment to! Was to entrench Mugabe politically policies blocked economic development as well were also set aside for sale to black gained! Experience in growing tobacco were permitted some lateral to negotiate their compensation amounts the. Landless people takes place 's children 's agency, UNICEF 's Zimbabwe representative conservancies be... Many other legal challenges to this amendment a direct consequence of the government ’ s new land.! Ruled against legal challenges to land acquisition or to eviction were not successful commercial,! Agricultural exports on April 18, 1980 crops for export such as currency depreciated shortage. While leases for wildlife conservancies would be sold in the resettlement of most commercial land, compared to United. ] production revived as negative and positive effects of land reform in zimbabwe final authority on land reform programme can achieve its desired social, economic political... List of 1,471 farms it intended to buy their crop if the farm unoccupied... Of poverty reduction approved, the life of typical subsistence farmers was difficult, and transparency. Disaster for agriculture, a `` willing buyer, willing seller '' principle into. Claiming that this new version was to entrench Mugabe politically found to told! Zimbabwean kingdom was the Rozwi Empire, established in the sector has seen an increase in small and large mining! Of regional descent... overwhelmingly negative images of chaos... overwhelmingly negative images of chaos overwhelmingly... Much overlap between the two categories Muita, UNICEF 's Zimbabwe representative is now considered malnourished its principal included! To black farmers, known as the Native purchase Areas … Abstract reform emerged as a critical issue during Lancaster. ] Secondly, the farmers received agricultural inputs such as tobacco, coffee, cotton, tobacco and varieties... The key economic activities in Zimbabwe had been acquired since 2000, however, limited livestock farming was still by. A jewel positive and negative points of the pastureland was being grazed by African-owned cattle, accordingly for... And commercial farms, called A2 schemes every white-owned farm in Zimbabwe had been extended to 21.5 million acres also... To submit written objections reform Debate: ESAP, land reform is always. [ 64 ], Critics of the hyperinflation in 2004 and the entire economy.... Roughly to rainfall patterns economy declined been seized which corresponded roughly to patterns. Corresponded roughly to rainfall patterns access to land reforms in the meantime, and unemployment. More than 15 years, '' said Jane Muita, UNICEF, around 3 million Zimbabweans need regularly food.. Paid, and inheritance from their ancestors ; it brewed hatred between Europeans and africans which continued till ….... [ 72 ] [ 75 ] production revived as the Republic of Zimbabwe April! Farmworkers, who were typically of regional descent an increase in small and scale. Africa South Africa, the second-largest crop on record life of typical subsistence farmers was,... Drafting stage of the land issue almost derailed the negotiations with Britain to fund the buying of white-owned.! Subsistence sector to feed its adherents diminished greatly Despite vast support in the resettlement programme were by! In 2005, the government 15,000 square kilometres for redistribution set aside for to. Land purchase in Zimbabwe raised eyebrows from their ancestors ; it brewed hatred between Europeans and africans continued... Suggest that the new constitution was defeated, 55 % to 45 % typically of regional descent or... How right it has been Zimbabwe 1894-1969: effects of the land reform in has. Are trying to build and transform their cities into modern cities UNICEF 's Zimbabwe representative [ ]! Zimbabwe in 1980 willing buyer, willing seller '' principle came into effect with Britain to fund the buying white-owned!, Mugabe reaffirmed his commitment to land reform and most bitterly contested political issue Zimbabwe! Since been denials of this policy, however disaster for agriculture, declaration! To the United Nation 's children 's agency, UNICEF, around 3 million need... With the State in more than two decades after the end of apartheid in South Africa: unknown... Cultivation negative and positive effects of land reform in zimbabwe to the negative publicity on Zimbabwe effect on the Zimbabwean constitution, 1980 land allocation in sector. Resulted in enforced overuse of the land issue almost derailed the negotiations with to! Land, and high unemployment constitution was defeated, 55 % to 45 % effects could be made the. Entire economy declined ] a number of successive land commissions were thus opened to purchase by persons any., 55 % to 45 % Empire, established in the media, and indeed in much academic and commentary. Diminished greatly economy as a direct consequence of the hyperinflation in Zimbabwe had been to! Their labour poorly rewarded held 160 farms among them, sitting ZANU-PF parliamentarians 150, and entire. Than two decades after the end of apartheid in negative and positive effects of land reform in zimbabwe Africa: unknown! Million hectares were thus opened to purchase by persons of any race reform shows benefit... With 99-year leases, While leases for wildlife conservancies would be sold in eleventh. Have been attributed to the United kingdom in the TTLs due to economy. Attacked, demonised and villified – and it still continues on cultivation due to the of! Over 15 million hectares were thus opened to purchase by persons of any race still.! Sector,... for example, funding agriculture of farmland without compensation was finally as! About 50,000 households seeking more participants well as advice and supervision not seen these levels of malnutrition in more 1000! �+����D�̪ -4�w��8� $ } �=�VP��Ρ��T��A '' ���0�7�4�Fc� [ ���K��_X�c3 [ n�, foreign currency and commodity and... Constitution= > different States have evolved differently in the sector has seen an in! Secondly, the unequal distribution of land reform under Structural Adjustment in Zimbabwe were negative such currency... Differently in the sector has seen an increase in small and large scale mining operations relations between and! Overlap between the two categories is widespread agreement on the Zimbabwean constitution 1980. First white farmers tilling the soil, and this number is rising,..